The Harris Company Commercial Appraiser LA CA / Consultant, Los Angeles, LA, L.A., Southern California, Orange County, Ventura County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County
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Commercial Appraiser and Real Estate Consultant.
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The Harris Company,
Real Estate Appraiser / Consultant
5780 West Centinela Avenue, Building 1, Suite 408
Los Angeles, California 90045
Copyright 2005, 2006  All Rights Reserved

Los Angeles City, Residential and
Commercial Appraisal Coverage
Areas: 90001, 90002, 90003, 90004,
90006, 90007, 90008, 90009, 90010,
90011, 90012, 90013, 90014, 90015,
90016, 90017, 90018, 90019, 90020,
90021, 90022, 90023, 90024, 90025,
90026, 90027, 90028, 90029, 90030,
90031, 90032, 90033, 90034, 90035,
90036, 90037, 90038, 90039, 90040,
90041, 90042, 90043, 90044, 90045,
90046, 90047, 90048, 90049, 90050,
90051, 90052, 90053, 90054, 90055,
90056, 90057, 90058, 90059, 90060,
90061, 90062, 90063, 90064, 90065,
90066, 90067, 90068, 90069, 90070,
90071, 90072, 90073, 90074, 90075,
90076, 90077, 90078, 90079, 90080,
90081, 90082, 90083, 90084, 90086,
90087, 90088, 90089, 90091, 90093,
90094, 90095, 90096, 90097, 90099,
90101, 90102, 90103, 90174, 90185,
90189, 91331, 91335

Los Angeles County, Residential
Appraiser, Real Estate Appraiser, and
Commercial Appraisal / Appraiser
Coverage Areas: 93510
Agoura 91301
Agua Dulce, Saugus 91350
Airport Worldway (City of LA) 90009
Alhambra 91801, 91803
Altadena 91001
Arcadia 91006  ,91007
ARCO Towers (City of LA) 90071
Arleta (City of LA) 91331
Artesia 90680
Athens 90044
Atwater Village (City of LA) 90039
Avalon 90704
Azusa 91702
Baldwin Hills 90008
Baldwin Park 91706
Bassett 91746
Bel Air Estates (City of LA) 90049.
Bell 90201
Bell Gardens 90201
Bellflower 90706
Beverly Glen (City of LA) 90077, 90210
Beverly Hills 90210 - 90212
Biola Univ. (La Mirada) 90639
Boyle Heights (City of LA) 90033
Bradbury 91010
Brentwood (City of LA) 90049
Burbank 91501 - 91502 / 91506 /
Burbank (Glenoaks) 91504
Burbank (Woodbury Univ.) 91510
Cal State Dominguez Hills (Carson)
Cal State Long Beach (Long Beach)
Cal State Northridge (City of LA) 91330
Cal Tech (Pasadena) 91125 - 91126
Calabasas 91302/91372
Canoga Park (City of LA) 91303 -
Canyon Country (Santa Clarita) 91351
Carson 90745 - 90746
Carson (CS Univ. Dominguez Hills)
Carson/Long Beach 90810
Castaic 91310 / 91384
Castellemare (City of LA) 90272
Century City (City of LA) 90067
Cerritos 90701
Chatsworth (City of LA) 91311
Cheviot Hills (City of LA) 90064
Chinatown (City of LA) 90012
City Terrace 90063
Civic Center (City of LA) 90012
Claremont 91711
Commerce, City of 90040
Compton 90220 - 90222
Country Club Park (City of LA) 90019
Covina 91722 - 91724
Crenshaw (City of LA) 90008
Cudahy 90201
Culver City 90230 / 90232
Cypress Park (City of LA) 90065
Diamond Bar 91765 / 91789
Dominguez Hills, Cal State (Carson)
Downey 90240 - 90242
Downtown Los Angeles (City of LA)
90013 - 90015 / 90017 / 90021 / 90029
Eagle Rock (City of LA) 90041
East Los Angeles 90022
East Los Angeles (City of LA) 90023
East Rancho Dominguez 90221
Echo Park (City of LA) 90026
Edwards AFB 93523
El Monte 91731 - 91732
El Segundo 90245
El Sereno (City of LA) 90032
Elizabeth Lake 93532
Encino (City of LA) 91316 / 91436
Federal Bldg (Lawndale) 90261
Firestone Boy Scout Res. 92621
Florence 90001
Gardena 90247 - 90249
Glassell Park (City of LA) 90065
Glendale 91201 - 91208
Glendale (La Crescenta) 91214
Glendale (Tropico) 91204 - 91205
Glendale (Verdugo City) 91046
Glendora 91740 - 91741
Glenoaks (Burbank) 91504
Granada Hills (City of LA) 91344
Griffith Park (City of LA) 90027
Hacienda Heights (La Puente) 91745
Hancock Park (City of LA) 90004 /
Harbor City (City of LA) 90710
Hawaiian Gardens 90716
Hawthorne (Holly Park) 90250
Hermosa Beach 90254
Hi Vista 93535
Hidden Hills 91302
Highland Park (City of LA) 90042
Hollywood (City of LA) 90028 / 90038 /
Huntington Park 90255
Hyde Park (City of LA) 90043
Industry, City of 91744 / 91746 / 91789
Inglewood 90301 - 90303, 90305
Irwindale 91706
Jefferson Park (City of LA) 90018
Juniper Hills 93543
Koreatown (City of LA) 90005
La Canada-Flintridge 91011
La Crescenta (Glendale) 91214
La Habra Heights 90631
La Mirada 90638
La Mirada (Biola Univ.) 90639
La Puente 91744/91746
La Puente (Hacienda Heights) 91745
La Puente (Rowland Heights) 91748
La Verne 91750
Ladera Heights (City of LA) 90056
Lake Hughes 93532
Lake Los Angeles 93550 / 93591
Lake View Terrace (City of LA) 91342
Lakewood 90712 - 90713 / 90715
Lancaster 93534 - 93536
Lawndale 90260
Lawndale (Federal Bldg) 90261
LAX Area (City of LA) 90045
Leimert Park (City of LA) 90008
Lennox 90304
Littlerock 93543
Llano 93544
Lomita 90717
Long Beach 90802 - 90808, 90813 -
90815, 90822
Long Beach (Cal State Long Beach)
Long Beach (McDonnell Douglas)
Long Beach (North Long Beach) 90805
Long Beach (World Trade Ctr) 90831 -
AIr Port Worldway 90009
ARCO Towers 90071
Arleta 91331
Atwater Village 90039
Bel Air Estates 90049 / 90077
Beverly Glen 90077 / 90210
Boyle Heights 90033
Brentwood 90049
Cal State Northridge 91330
Canoga Park 91303 / 91304
Century City 90067
Chatsworth 91311
Cheviot Hills 90064
Chinatown 90012
Civic Center 90012
Country Club Park 90019
Crenshaw 90008
Cypress Park 90065
Downtown Los Angeles 90013 - 90015
/ 90017 / 90021 / 90029
Eagle Rock 90041
East Los Angeles 90023
Echo Park 90026
El Sereno 90032
Encino 91316 / 91436
Glassell Park 90065
Granada Hills 91344
Griffith Park 90027
Hancock Park 90004 / 90020
Harbor City 90710
Highland Park 90042
Hollywood 90028 / 90038 / 90068
Hyde Park  90043
Jefferson Prk 90018
Los Angeles (Koreatown) 90005
Los Angeles (Ladera Heights) 90056
Lake View Terrace) 91342
Los Angeles (LAX Area) 90045
Los Angeles (Leimert Park) 90008
Los Angeles (Los Feliz) 90027
Los Angeles (Mar Vista) 90066
Los Angeles (Mid City) 90019
Los Angeles (Mission Hills) 91345
Los Angeles (Montecito Heights) 90031
Los Angeles (Mount Olympus) 90046
Los Angeles (Mt. Washington) 90065
Los Angeles (North Hills) 91343
North Hollywood) 91601 - 91602 /
91604 - 91607
Northridge) 91324-91325
Pacific Highlands) 90272
Pacific Palisades) 90272
Pacoima) 91331
Los Angeles (Palms) 90034
Panorama City) 91402
Los Angeles (Park La Brea) 90036
Los Angeles (Pico Heights) 90006
Playa del Rey) 90293
Los Angeles (Porter Ranch) 91326
Los Angeles (Rancho Park) 90064
Reseda) 91335
San Pedro) 90731-90732
Los Angeles (Sawtelle) 90025
Los Angeles (Shadow Hills) 91040
Los Angeles (Sherman Oaks) 91403 /
Los Angeles (Silverlake) 90026
Los Angeles (South Central) 90001 /
90003 /90007 / 90011 / 90037 / 90047
/ 90061 - 90062
Los Angeles (Studio City) 91604
Los Angeles (Sun Valley) 91352
Los Angeles (Sunland) 91040
Los Angeles (Sylmar) 91342
Los Angeles (Tarzana) 91356
Los Angeles (Terminal Island) 90731
Los Angeles (Toluca Lake) 91602
Los Angeles (Tujunga) 91042
Los Angeles (USC) 90089
Los Angeles (Valley Village) 91607
Van Nuys) 91401- 91403 / 91405 -
91406 / 91411 / 91423
Los Angeles (Venice) 90291
Los Angeles (Watts) 90002/90059
Los Angeles (West Adams) 90016
Los Angeles (West Beverly) 90048
Los Angeles (West Fairfax) 90035
Los Angeles (West Hills) 91307
Los Angeles (West Los Angeles) 90025
Los Angeles (Westchester) 90045
Los Angeles (Westlake) 90057
Los Angeles (Westwood) 90024
Wilmington) 90744
Los Angeles (Wilshire Blvd) 90010
Los Angeles (Winnetka) 91306
Los Angeles (Woodland Hills) 91364 /
Los Feliz (City of LA) 90027
Los Nietos 90606
Lynwood 90262
Malibu 90265
Manhattan Beach 90266
Mar Vista (City of LA) 90066
Marina del Rey 90292
Maywood 90270
McDonnell Douglas (Long Beach)
Mid City (City of LA) 90019
Mission Hills (City of LA) 91345
Monrovia 91016
Montebello 90640
Montecito Heights (City of LA) 90031
Monterey Hills (City of LA) 90032
Monterey Park 91754-91756
Montrose 91020
Mount Olympus (City of LA) 90046
Mount Wilson 91023
Mt. Washington (City of LA) 90065
Newhall (Santa Clarita) 91321
North Hills (City of LA) 91343
North Hollywood (City of LA) 91601 -
91602 / 91604 - 91607
North Long Beach (Long Beach) 90805
Northridge (City of LA) 91324 - 91325
Northridge, Cal State Univ. (City of LA)
Norwalk 90650
Oak Park 91301
Pacific Highlands (City of LA) 90272
Pacific Palisades (City of LA) 90272
Pacoima (City of LA) 91331
Palmdale 93550 - 93552 / 93591
Palms (City of LA) 90034
Palos Verdes Estates 90274
Panorama City (City of LA) 91402
Paramount 90723
Park La Brea (City of LA) 90036
Pasadena 91101 / 91103 - 91107
Pasadena (Cal Tech) 91125 - 91126
Pearblossom 93553
Phillips Ranch 91766
Pico Heights (City of LA) 90006
Pico Rivera 90660
Playa del Rey (City of LA) 90293
Playa Vista (City of LA) 90094
Pomona 91766-91768
Porter Ranch (City of LA) 91326
Quartz Hill 93536
Rancho Dominguez 90220
Rancho Palos Verdes 90275 / 90717 /
Rancho Park (City of LA) 90064
Redondo Beach 90277 - 90278
Reseda (City of LA) 91335
Rolling Hills 90274
Rolling Hills Estates 90274
Rosemead 91770
Rosewood 90222
Rowland Heights (La Puente) 91748
San Dimas 91773
San Fernando 91340
San Gabriel 91775 - 91776
San Marino 91108
San Pedro (City of LA) 90731 - 90733
Santa Clarita (Canyon Country) 91351
Santa Clarita (Newhall) 91321
Santa Clarita (Valencia) 91354 - 91355
Santa Fe Springs 90670
Santa Monica 90401 - 90405
Saugus, Agua Dulce 91350
Sawtelle (City of LA) 90025
Shadow Hills (City of LA) 91040
Sherman Oaks (City of LA) 91403 / 9
Sierra Madre 91024
Signal Hill 90755
Silverlake (City of LA) 90026
South Central (City of LA) 90001 /
90003 / 90007 / 90011 / 90037 /
90047 / 90061 - 90062
South El Monte 91733
South Gate 90280
South Pasadena 91030
South Whittier 90605
Stevenson Ranch 91381
Studio City (City of LA) 91604
Sun Valley (City of LA) 91352
Sunland (City of LA) 91040
Sylmar (City of LA) 91342
Tarzana (City of LA) 91356
Temple City 91780
Terminal Island (City of LA) 90731
Toluca Lake (City of LA) 91602
Topanga 90290
Torrance 90501-90506 / 90277 -
Tropico (Glendale) 91204 - 91205
Tujunga (City of LA) 91042
Universal City 91608
USC (City of LA) 90089
VA Hospital (Sawtelle) 90073
Valencia (Santa Clarita) 91354 - 91355
Valinda 91744
Valley Village (City of LA) 91607
Valyermo 93563
Van Nuys (City of LA) 91401 - 91403 /
91405  - 91406 / 91411 / 91423
Venice (City of LA) 90291
Verdugo City (Glendale) 91046
Vernon 90058
View Park 90043
Walnut 91789
Walnut Park 90255
Watts (City of LA) 90002  /90059
West Adams (City of LA) 90016
West Beverly (City of LA) 90048
West Covina 91790-91793
West Fairfax (City of LA) 90035
West Hills (City of LA) 91307
West Hollywood 90069
West Los Angeles (City of LA) 90025
Westchester (City of LA) 90045
Westlake (City of LA) 90057
Westlake Village 91361 - 91362
Westwood (City of LA) 90024
Whittier 90601 - 90605
Whittier (Whittier College) 90608
Whittier College (Whittier) 90608
Willowbrook 90059 / 90222
Wilmington (City of LA) 90744
Wilshire Blvd (City of LA) 90010
Windsor Hills 90043
Winnetka (City of LA) 91306
Woodbury Univ. (Burbank) 91510
Woodland Hills (City of LA) 91364 /
World Trade Center (Long Beach)
90831 - 90832

Please call for Orange County,
Ventura County, Riverside County,
San Bernardino, County
Coverage Areas,   Real Estate
Appraiser Orange Riverside Ventura
San Bernardino Counties,
10 Tips on Financing Commercial Real Estate
Writen by Groshan Fabiola
If you are hoping to purchase commercial real estate property, then you are most likely
going to need financing in order to do this. That is unless you were born fabulously and
independently wealthy. There are certain things that lending institutions expect from
those they are getting ready to summarily hand large sums of money to. Hopefully, the
following tips will help insure that you get the best possible financing for your
commercial real estate investment.
1) Make sure you have all the documents you need and that they are accurate and up
to date. You need to have a solid business plan in place with facts, figures, estimates,
and forecasts. Lenders are making an investment and taking a huge risk when dealing
with commercial real estate. If you don’t have a business plan that indicates that you
have put a great amount of time, effort, energy, and thought into your business, they
are going to be less than enthusiastic about the prospect of taking that risk.
4) Come into the deal with a current
appraisal of the property. This can make all the
difference in the world. Even if the bank requires you to have another appraisal, it is a
good idea to have your own appraisal of the property before you even make an offer
on the property. An appraisal will provide you with and unbiased estimate of what the
property is truly worth and it will help you determine what kind of risk you are really
taking before you’ve put money on the table.

Restaurant-Table Configurations
By Thompson, Gary M.
Publication: Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly
Date: Saturday, February 1 2003
Subject: Customer service (Management), Restaurant industry (Management), Table
service (Management)
Product: Restaurants & Food Service
Having the right-size tables in a position to be combined with other tables to serve large
parties can yield additional revenue at virtually no added cost.
This article focuses on restaurants with walk-in customers (no reservations are taken),
where a host or hostess seats the parties
and where parties are seated separately. Restaurants of this kind are common in the
United States (e.g., TGIF, Chili's, Applebee's). Specifically, this article examines the
issue of which tables should be combinable with which other tables. "Combinability" is
the ability to create a larger table from adjacent smaller tables. For example,
combinability would allow two adjacent 4-top tables to be combined to seat parties of up
eight people. (1) In an earlier investigation I found that, in many cases, having tables
dedicated to specific party sizes was preferable to having combinable tables. (2) The
reason for this was that placing tables on hold, while waiting for customers to depart an
adjacent table that can then be combined with the empty on-hold table, imposes a non-
productive idle time for the on-hold tables.

Existing-Home Sales Series
The NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS® Existing-Home Sales Series is the
premier measurement of the residential real estate market. On or about the 25th of
each month, NAR releases statistics on sales and
prices of existing single-family homes
for the nation and the four regions. Beginning on February 25, 2005, these figures
include condos and co-ops, in addition to single-family homes. The association also
produces state-by-state existing-home sales and metro area home prices on a
quarterly basis.

What is a Bond
A bond rating performs the isolated function of credit risk evaluation. A bond rating
does not constitute a recommendation to invest in a bond and does not take into
consideration the risk preference of the investor. While many factors go into the
investment decision making process, the bond rating is often the single most important
factor affecting the interest cost on bonds.  
There are three major rating agencies for municipal bonds: Moody's Investors Service,
Standard & Poor's, and Fitch Ratings. Of the three rating agencies, Standard & Poor's
and Moody's rate over 80% of all municipal and corporate bonds.

H.R. 1295 [109th]: Responsible Lending Act
HR 1295 IH
1st Session
H. R.
To protect consumers against unfair and deceptive practices in connection with higher
cost mortgage transactions, to strengthen the civil remedies available to consumers
under existing law, to provide for certain uniform lending standards, to improve housing
counseling, to better mortgage servicing, to enhance appraisal standards and
oversight, to establish licensing and minimum standards for mortgage brokers, and for
other purposes.

This Web page provides information for
engineers and surveyors in the preparation
and submittal of site plan or survey drawings to DDES.
You can download submittal information as well as CAD drawing files from this page. All
CAD drawings posted here are compatible to programs that can read AutoCAD Rel. 12
and later. Note: CAD file names have the extension dwg.

The Structural Engineer's (SE) job is to determine what kind of steel reinforcement is
required at various depths of the
pool, given surcharging (vertical loading) and other
loading forces that act on your pool.  The reinforcement is needed to keep the shell
from caving in to those forces.  They also calculate things like minimum shell thickness
at various depths given those same surcharging conditions.  You can see from the
picture below all the different variables that need to be accounted for given load
conditions and pool depths.  Structural engineering is a pretty exact science.  Most
pools that are built today are so standard that SEs have standard pool drawings that
they sell en masse.  The only time that an SE has to do Special Engineering is when
there are additional surcharge conditions that deviate from the standard pool plans.  
This would occur when you have extenuating circumstances like having heavy loading
conditions on the pool or disturbance of existing soil structure that could compromise
the integrity of the house or existing structures on the property.

Development drawings-100% current drawings to review
Include architectural, civil, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, specifications, cut sheets
Full two wing design drawings
Include architectural floor plans for levels 1-4
Design Development Drawings-50% completion
Include architectural, civil, mechanical, electrical, plumbing
Schematic Design Conceptual Floor Plans & Elevations
Include architectural, civil, mechanical, electrical, plumbing
Current Floor Plans
Science and Engineering Buildings

Ohio Department of Transportation
Office of Traffic Engineering
January 19, 2007
To Holders of the OTE Standard Construction Drawings (SCDs):
As of January 19, 2007, one OTE Standard Construction Drawing (SCD) has been
deleted and thirtyfive
revised or new Traffic Standard Construction Drawings have been issued.
The updated publications and the separate SCD revision package are available from
the links below, the
Design Reference Resource Center (, or from
the Office of Traffic
Engineerings Home Page (, using the
Publications/Documents link. The
revision package includes a detailed Revision Log and updated Index sheets.
Per ODOT policy, paper copies of the publications are no longer distributed to all
holders. Revisions
will only be available via the web pages noted above.

A traffic plan review is an evaluation of pedestrian and vehicular circulation on
development site plans and of traffic design parameters in roadway geometric plans.
The review ensures that safe, efficient, and appropriate traffic accommodations are
provided on public roads and publicly-used facilities during the development process.

What's a
cap rate anyhow?       
by Ozzie Jurock
One of the most difficult and perplexing problems for realtors and investors is finding
current Gross and Net Income Multipliers and Cap Rates. Determining the value of an
income property generally involves establishing either the Gross or Net Income
Multipliers, or the Cap Rate according to comparables.  

Cap Rate Follies
Avoid These Pitfalls When Calculating Commercial Property Values.
Capitalization rates are often controversial and misunderstood variables in commercial
real estate valuation equations. To value properties, most buyers and sellers prefer an
income approach, which analyzes cash flows to determine debt service and investor
return — typically the internal rate of return — so it's easy to see why cap rates are
In fact, no other valuation aspect is debated as heavily as cap rates because
unsupported data often lead to inaccurate commercial property valuations. By
understanding the fallacies that exist, real estate professionals can perform more
thorough financial analyses for their clients.

What's it Worth? Deriving Your
Capitalization Rate
by Ray Alcorn
How do you know what a commercial income property is worth? How do you know that
you can get your desired return on your investment? Is there a way to calculate the
maximum you can pay for an investment and still achieve your investment goals? This
article will answer these questions and more about valuing income property.
Many real estate investors determine the value of an income property by using the
capitalization rate, aka cap rate. It is probably the one most misused concept in real
estate investing.

Handbook of Simplified
Practice for Traffic Studies
All files are in pdf format. To read them you may need to download the free Adobe
Acrobat Reader.
This project was sponsored by the Iowa Department of Transportation and the Iowa
Highway Research Board.
 Traffic Study Report Checklist.

The discount rate often used in capital budgeting that makes the net present value of
all cash flows from a particular project equal to zero. Generally speaking, the higher a
project's internal rate of return, the more desirable it is to undertake the project. As
IRR can be used to rank several prospective projects a firm is considering.
Assuming all other factors are equal among the various projects, the project with the
highest IRR would probably be considered the best and undertaken first.
IRR is sometimes referred to as "economic rate of return (ERR)".  
You can think of IRR as the rate of growth a project is expected to generate. While the
actual rate of return that a given project ends up generating will often differ from its
estimated IRR rate, a project with a substantially higher IRR value than other available
options would still provide a much better chance of strong growth.
IRRs can also be compared against prevailing rates of return in the securities market. If
a firm can't find any projects with IRRs greater than the returns that can be generated
in the financial markets, it may simply choose to invest its retained earnings into the

The Internal Rate of Return (
Copyright © 1997-2006 Samuel L. Baker
When you are evaluating an investment, a useful number number to know is the
internal rate of return.
For some investments, like bank accounts, the internal rate of return is easy to figure
because the bank tells you what it is. For example, a 5% simple interest bank account
has an internal rate of return of 5%.
For other investments, you have to do some work to calculate the internal rate of
return. This is especially true of investments like building a factory or getting an
education. These kinds of investments generally don't pay money in nice even amounts
like a bank account does. Nevertheless, you can calculate an internal rate of return for
these investments, and use it to decide which investments pay best.

Perils of the Internal Rate of Return (
Copyright © 2000 Samuel L. Baker
The two most-used measures for evaluating an investment are the net present value
and the internal rate of return.  (Two earlier tutorials discussed these concepts.  See
the tutorials list for links to tutorials for discounting future income and the internal rate
of return.)
It is often assumed that higher is better for both of the net present value and the
internal rate of return.  In particular, it is usually stated that investments with higher
internal rates of return are more profitable than investments with lower internal rates of
However, this is not necessarily so.  In some situations, an investment with a lower
internal rate of return may be better, even judged on narrow financial grounds, than an
investment with a higher internal rate of return. This interactive lecture explores why
and when this reversal takes place.

An exclusive column devoted to teaching you about residential architecture styles and

Commercial Real Estate
Who Are Your Future Tenants?
Office Employment in the United States: 2004-2014
By John Burns, RPA and John McDonald, PhD, John Burns Consulting Co.
January 2007
This research report forecasts demand for U.S. office space through 2014 using
detailed industry classifications. Using data from several sources, the analysis provides
a comprehensive look at the future need for office space and illustrates a methodology
for making similar projections at the metropolitan area level.

Probate Referees   
Probate Referee Contact Information
The following documents are provided in PDF (Portable Document Format) and require
the free Adobe Reader software. Click the Get Adobe Reader button to download and
install the Reader to integrate with your Web browser.
Application for Probate Referee
Probate Referee Examination Information  
Probate Referee Candidate Test Preparation Information
Probate Referees' Guide (2005 Rev.)

Real Estate
Taxes: How To Determine If You Are Paying Too Much
Most businesses routinely seek ways to minimize their taxes through effective planning.
One area which does not receive significant attention is the payment of real estate
taxes on your business property. This is particularly true if your business leases the
facility at which it operates since tax decisions are usually left to the landlord. However,
when you are renting your facility your Lease commonly provides that real estate taxes
are an expense passed through to the tenant by the landlord. Thus, even though the
landlord receives the bill, you the tenant, pay the tax.

Report on Meetings with California
Commercial Property Appraisers
October 1998
I. Introduction
In September 1998, the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) convened two
extended discussion
sessions with groups of commercial property appraisers. The purposes of these
meetings were to elicit
detailed firsthand information on the energy-related valuation practices of California
appraisers, and to investigate possibilities for enhanced recognition of energy costs
and energy efficiency
through improved documentation. This report describes results and findings from the
two meetings.

During August 2006, the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®’ (NAR) Marketing
Research Department invited 86,777
appraiser members and recipients of the
Appraisal Section of the weekly NAR ListServe message to participate in
an online survey. Findings reflected in this report were collected from responses
received between August 10th and 25th, 2006.
A total of 858 respondents participated in this survey. This number is a large enough
response rate for answers to be considered statistically significant. At the 95% level of
confidence, the statistical error is +/-3.33%.
The goal of the survey was to understand how Appraiser members conduct their
business, obtain appraisal industry
information, and make decisions on their appraisal education and designations.
Findings are presented in a SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS followed by details in the
KEY FINDINGS section. A copy of
the survey is included in appendix A and lists of respondents’ answers to open-ended
questions are included in appendix

The purpose of this chapter is to establish and describe the dedications and
reservations which may or shall be required as conditions of
approval for subdivision
maps. This chapter outlines the circumstances, procedures, and formulas which may
apply to a subdivision map submitted for approval.

The California Oak Foundation is dedicated to the conservation and perpetuation of
California's native oak woodlands. The California Oak Foundation educates the general
public and decision-makers about the importance of oak woodlands to California's
wildlife habitat, watersheds, and quality of life through its newsletters, bulletins, books,
symposia, and workshops.

California Oak Woodland Policies and
There are three state laws governing oak woodlands: California Environmental Quality
(CEQA), Professional Foresters Law (PFL) and Public Resources Code §21083.4
(PRC), county
mitigation. This is how they work individually and in unison for the conservation of
most biologically diverse natural resource:

The mission of the Coastal Commission is to:
Protect, conserve, restore, and enhance environmental and human-based resources of
the California coast and ocean for environmentally sustainable and prudent use by
current and future generations.
California Coastal Commission was established by voter initiative in 1972
(Proposition 20) and later made permanent by the Legislature through adoption of the
California Coastal Act of 1976.

Harold H. Huggins Realty, Inc., )
15308-101 Spencerville Court, )
Burtonsville, Maryland 20866, )
located in Montgomery County, Maryland, )
P.E. Turner & Company, Ltd., )
1129 Gaskins Road, Suite 207, )
Richmond, Virginia 23238, )
and ) CASE NO:
Residential Appraisal and Consulting, Inc., )
6737 South Peoria, Suite B 114, ) JURY DEMAND
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74136, )
individually and on behalf of )
all others similarly situated, )
Plaintiffs, )
v. )
FNC, INC., )
1214 Office Park Drive, )
Oxford, Mississippi 38655,

1258.260.  (a) The
statement of valuation data shall give the name
and business or residence address of the witness and shall include a
statement whether the witness will testify to an opinion as to any of
the matters listed in Section 1258.250 and, as to each matter upon
which the witness will give an opinion, what that opinion is and the
following items to the extent that the opinion is based on them:
(1) The interest being valued.
(2) The date of valuation used by the witness.
(3) The highest and best use of the property.
(4) The applicable zoning and the opinion of the witness as to the
probability of any change in zoning.
(5) The sales, contracts to sell and purchase, and leases
supporting the opinion.
(6) The cost of reproduction or replacement of the existing
improvements on the property, the depreciation or obsolescence the
improvements have suffered, and the method of calculation used to
determine depreciation.
(7) The gross income from the property, the deductions from gross
income, and the resulting net income; the reasonable net rental value
attributable to the land and existing improvements, and the
estimated gross rental income and deductions upon which the
reasonable net rental value is computed; the rate of capitalization
used; and the value indicated by the capitalization.
(8) If the property is a portion of a larger parcel, a description
of the larger parcel and its value.
(9) If the opinion concerns loss of goodwill, the method used to
determine the loss, and a summary of the data supporting the opinion.

(b) With respect to each sale, contract, or lease listed under
paragraph (5) of subdivision (a), the statement of valuation data
shall give:
(1) The names and business or residence addresses, if known, of
the parties to the transaction.
(2) The location of the property subject to the transaction.
(3) The date of the transaction.
(4) If recorded, the date of recording and the volume and page or
other identification of the record of the transaction.
(5) The price and other terms and circumstances of the
transaction.  In lieu of stating the terms contained in any contract,
lease, or other document, the statement may, if the document is
available for inspection by the adverse party, state the place where
and the times when it is available for inspection.
(6) The total area and shape of the property subject to the
(c) If any opinion referred to in Section 1258.250 is based in
whole or in substantial part upon the opinion of another person, the
statement of valuation data shall include the name and business or
residence address of that other person, his business, occupation, or
profession, and a statement as to the subject matter to which his or
her opinion relates.
(d) Except when an appraisal report is used as a statement of
valuation data as permitted by subdivision (e), the statement of
valuation data shall include a statement, signed by the witness, that
the witness has read the statement of valuation data and that it
fairly and correctly states his or her opinions and knowledge as to
the matters therein stated.
(e) An appraisal report that has been prepared by the witness
which includes the information required to be included in a statement
of valuation data may be used as a statement of valuation data under
this article.

The Downtown Los Angeles Market Report &
2006 Demographic Survey of New Downtown Residents
Executive Summary
Background and Purpose
Downtown Los Angeles has been in an unprecedented renaissance since the passage
of the
Adaptive Reuse Ordinance in 1999, which allows for the conversion of vacant office and
commercial space into residential use. The renaissance continued with the
development of
catalytic projects such as STAPLES Center (1999), the Cathedral of Our Lady of the
(2002), and the Walt Disney Concert Hall (2003), as well as the construction of more
than 7,000
new and Adaptive Reuse housing units since 1999.
In order to quantify the magnitude of Downtown's renaissance, the Downtown Center
Improvement District (DCBID) retained the Los Angeles County Economic Development
Corporation (LAEDC) to gather business, economic and demographic data that are of
interest to
corporate, retail and restaurant tenants, investors, developers, bankers, residents and
The purpose of the report and survey was to profile the residents of Downtown - who
really live,
work and play there - and the business community to assess the overall economic
power of

Between 1980 and 1994, more than 1,600 banks insured by the FDIC were closed or
received FDIC financial assistance. Many of the banks that failed during that time were
very active participants in the commercial real estate markets. Historical analysis of the
banking crisis of the 1980s has revealed that concentrations of real estate loans
relative to total assets were higher for banks that failed than for banks that did not fail.
(Note: History of the Eighties–Lessons for the Future, Volume 1, prepared by the FDIC
Division of Research and Statistics (now part of the FDIC's Division of Insurance and
Research).) During this period, large demand for real estate investments produced a
boom in commercial real estate construction activity. In addition, overly optimistic
appraisals, together with the relaxation of debt service coverage ratios (DSCR), the
reduction in the maximum loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, and the loosening of underwriting
standards, often meant that borrowers frequently had little or no equity at stake, and in
some cases lenders bore most or all of the risk. (Note: The Barron’s Business Guide’s

Purpose of Audit
The reliability of
and sufficiency of insurance
The FDIC’s guidance to institutions and examiners on the reliability of appraisals and
sufficiency of
property and flood insurance for real estate loans was generally adequate. Specifically,
the FDIC’s
Rules and Regulations that provide institution guidance address all three areas.
examination guidance for the three areas is contained in the related examination
manuals and
Examination Documentation Modules for planning and performing examinations.

Assessors' Handbook
The Assessors' Handbook is a series of manuals developed by the staff of the Board of
Equalization in an open process. The objective of the Assessors' Handbook is to give
county assessors, their staff, and other interested parties an understanding of the
principles of property assessment and real and personal property appraisal for
property tax purposes. The Assessors' Handbook is intended to serve as a guide for
the appraisal and assessment of real and personal property. Additionally, the
Assessors' Handbook presents the Board staff's interpretation of rules, laws, and court
decisions on property assessment.

As part of the process of producing the Assessors' Handbook, meetings were held with
assessors, industry representatives, and other interested parties. Issues that could not
be resolved were decided by the Members of the Board of Equalization after hearing
testimony from interested parties and Board staff.

In attempting to relate the advice or guidance provided in the Assessors' Handbook,
care must be taken to ensure that the advice has not been superseded by subsequent
legislative or administrative action, court decisions, or reconsideration of staff's
position. Following advice provided in the Assessors' Handbook is not reasonable
reliance upon written advice for purposes of obtaining relief from a failure to pay tax,
interest, and/or penalty. In any instance where there is an inconsistency between a
statute or regulation and an Assessors' Handbook section, statutory or regulatory law is

Assessors' Handbook sections are available here for viewing and printing. You may
also purchase copies of Assessors' Handbook sections by downloading, printing, and
submitting the following form:

BOE-663-AH, Purchase Order For Assessor's Handbook Sections, Rev. 18 (01-05)
Table of Contents

AH 201, Assessment Roll Procedures, (06-85)
AH 215, Assessment Map Standards, (08-92)
AH 265, Cemetery Exemption, (08-77)
AH 267, Welfare, Church, and Religious Exemptions, (10-04)
AH 501, Basic Appraisal, (01-02)
AH 502, Advanced Appraisal, (12-98)
AH 503, Cash Equivalent Analysis, (03-85)
AH 504, Assessment of Personal Property and Fixtures, (10-02)
AH 505, Capitalization Formulas and Tables, (06-93)
AH 510, Assessment of Taxable Possessory Interests, (12-02)
AH 511, Assessment of Manufactured Homes and Parks, (11-01)
AH 513, Assessment of Shopping Centers, (01-83)
AH 515, Assessment of Golf Courses, (01-83)
AH 516, Assessment of Cemeteries, (01-83)
AH 521, Assessment of Agricultural and Open-Space Properties, (10-03)
AH 531, Residential Building Costs, (01-07)
AH 534, Rural Building Costs, (01-07)
AH 542, Assessment Of Water Companies And Water Rights, (12-00)
AH 560, Assessment of Mining Properties, (03-97)
AH 566, Assessment of Petroleum Properties, (01-99)
AH 570, Assessment of Commercial Aircraft, (01-72)
AH 576, Assessment of Vessels, (02-02)
AH 577, Assessment of General Aircraft, (11-03)
AH 581, Equipment Index and Percent Good Factors, (01-07)
AH 582, Explanation of the Derivation of Equipment Percent Good Factors, (02-81)
Assessment Appeals Manual, (05-03)
State Assessment Manual, (03-03)
Timber and Timberland Values Manual, (07/07)

Announcement 07-11, Collateral
Valuation Practices and Declining Markets
General guidance and resources to help lenders more accurately evaluate market
conditions / sf / guides / ssg / annltrs / pdf / 2007 / 0711.pdf

FAQs for Announcement 07-11, Collateral
Valuation Practices and Declining Markets
FAQs for Announcement 07-11; provide guidance for lenders on manually undewritten
or loans underwritten through Desktop Underwriter (DU) / sf / guides / ssg / relatedsellinginfo / pdf / 0711faq.pdf

July/August 2007 Single-Family News (
Appraisal): Declining Markets Prompt New
Guidance and Tools for ...
Declining Markets Prompt New Guidance and Tools for Lenders / lc / newsletters / sfnews / 0707declmark.jsp

Cushman & Wakefield offers a variety of publications at the global, regional and local
levels. Free reports can be downloaded directly by clicking "View Report". For a report
with an associated cost you may request the report by selecting the report(s) you would
like then clicking Request Report(s).
2006 Year-End Canadian Retail Report
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View Report  

Scout camp
appraisal: $12.3 million
Friday, August 03, 2007
By Lynn Moore
The Chicago Boy Scouts claim their Owasippe camp property is virtually worthless with
its current zoning, but a recent appraisal values it at $12.3 million.

That appraisal is one of the reasons Blue Lake Township is asking a local judge to
throw out a lawsuit filed against the township by the Chicago Area Council of Boy

Township Attorney Jim Nelson said the appraisal ordered by the township "really
refutes" the council's claims that its 4,780-acre property must be rezoned for it to have
any significant value.

How to Prepare a Picture-perfect Relocation Appraisal
November 1999
By Alvin "Chip" Wagner III, CRP, IFA
This article will help the transferee understand the appraiser's role in the relocation
process and aid the transferee in gathering the information necessary to complete the
The relocation appraisal process can seem confusing to average homeowners.
Therefore, the more a relocation coordinator knows about the process, the more
smoothly the appraiser will be able to get his or her job done.
Appraisers follow a set of federally accepted guidelines and practices known as the
Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP), which govern the
ethical and legal aspects of the appraisal reporting process. Relocation appraisers
must follow a set of guidelines and instructions set forth in ERC's Residential Appraisal
Report. Occasionally, the appraiser is asked by a client to depart from those
instructions to accommodate a corporation's relocation policy.

Depending on the appraisal's purpose and type, its size and detail will vary. The
relocation appraisal commands a more thorough analysis than the typical residential
appraisal, which is performed on the standardized, two-page Uniform Residential
Appraisal Report (URAR) for mortgage appraisals and other purposes.

When an appraisal is done for a relocation, the appraiser may spend from one to two
hours inspecting the interior and exterior of the home. The appraiser will pay special
attention to the overall interior condition, decor, and appeal of the home. In addition to
the standard exterior photos that are taken of the front, rear, and street views of the
home, the relocation appraiser will take interior photographs of every room in the home,
including the bathrooms and basement.

Legislation Addressing
Appraisal Fraud Recently Introduced in the House and Senate
Over the past couple of weeks, several pieces of mortgage fraud legislation were
introduced in the house and senate that also contain provisions enhancing appraisal
independence. In the House, H.R. 2061, the "Predatory Mortgage Lending Practices
Act", provides for the federal regulation of mortgage professionals in the subprime
market place, also contains provisions that increase penalties for attempting to
influence the appraisal process. In the Senate, there are also several bills that would
impact the appraisal industry. S 1222, the “Stop Fraud Act” would develop a grant
program within HUD targeted for state appraisal agencies to improve monitoring and
enforcement of housing appraisal regulations. S. 1299 “The Borrowers Protection Act”
would prohibit mortgage originators from engaging appraisers who would fail to act in
good faith, not comply with state regulations and would have an interest in the property
being appraised. More importantly, S. 1299 would require appraisers to be bonded. S.
1299 also prohibits mortgage originators from seeking to influence the appraisal
process to meet a targeted value.

CONTACTS: Tom Heinemann 202-383-1090, Chere LaRose-Senne 312-329-8495

back to top

The Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing
(PATH), a public-private initiative coordinated by HUD's
Office of Policy Development and Research, recently
published the Design Guide - Residential
PEX Water
Supply Plumbing Systems. The document serves as an
introduction for those who are new to cross-linked
polyethylene (PEX) water piping, as well as an
information and resource guide for homebuilders,
designers, and trade contractors.

The NAHB Research Center, the Plastics Pipe Institute,
the Plastic Pipe and Fittings Association, and PATH
collaborated on the guide. The Design Guide discusses
the properties and advantages of PEX piping, explains
the types of fittings and joining methods it requires,
and describes PEX piping system designs and layouts.
Also featured in the guide is information about the
treatment of PEX in major plumbing codes and relevant
jurisdictional code provisions, detailed instructions
for installing PEX piping, performance and lab testing
data, and testimonials from plumbers and homebuilders on
their experiences with PEX.

Estimate the value of your home based on the average home price appreciation for
your area
When using the
House Price Calculator, please note that it does not project the actual
value of any particular house.  Rather, it projects what a given house purchased at a
point in time would be worth today if it appreciated at the average appreciation rate of
all homes in the area.  The actual value of any house will depend on the local real
estate market, house condition and age, home improvements made and needed, and
many other factors. Consult a qualified real estate appraiser in your area to obtain a
professional estimate of the current value of your home.  Title XI of the Financial
Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 requires that any appraisal
used in connection with a federally related transaction must be performed by a
competent individual whose professional conduct is subject to supervision and
regulation. Appraisers must be licensed or certified according to state law.

OFHEO's mission is to promote housing and a strong national housing finance system
by ensuring the safety and soundness of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.  Read More

Click on the cities and
neighborhoods below for descriptions of life in these Los
Angeles areas.
- Alhambra
- Arcadia
- Beverly Hills
- Brentwood
- Burbank
- Culver City
- Glendale
- Hollywood
- Huntington Beach
- Irvine
- Laguna Beach
- Long Beach
- Malibu
- Newport Beach
- Orange County
- Pasadena
- Santa Monica
- Sherman Oaks
- Studio City
- Torrance
- West Hollywood
- Woodland Hills

Real Estate Investment Specialist
Residential, commercial or investment property for sale and rent.  Mortgages easily
arranged direct with Polish Banks.
We are a Polish based Real Estate Investment company set up by investors for
investors.  Our policy is to provide a second to none Real Estate and consultancy
service specialising in all types of property investment throughout Lower Silesia and the
city of Wroclaw.  We cover everything from private individuals looking to secure a
foreign property to multi national investment funds interested in bulk purchasing.