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GVA DAUM's Market Reports are Available for Download by Market and Property Type.
This individual market reports offer general market information, statistical analysis and current trends occurring in the commercial real estate industry for Los
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KEY FINANCIAL INDICATORS Loan Volume | Loan Performance | Occupancy Rates | Move-In Rates  |
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REALTY RATES Investor Survey, 4th Quarter, 2005

Compilation of Weekly Survey Releases
Land Recycling Resources on the Internet

City of Los Angeles Homeowners Guide to Additions and Remodeling

Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)

City of Los Angeles, Zoning Code Manuel

Building Departments, Southern California


California Law:

California Local Codes and Charters:

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ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS, DIGITAL SIGNATURES, &  ELECTRONIC RECORDATION (Eminent Domain Appraiser, Appraiser Los Angeles, Real Estate Appraiser Los
Angeles, Appraisal Los Angeles)

U.S. Supreme Court
483 U.S. 825
No. 86-133.
Argued March 30, 1987
Decided June 26, 1987

In the Post-Kelo Eminent Domain War, Public Agencies Win Battle Concerning
Valuation of Property Subject to Potential Dedication Requirement
by Rick E. Rayl and Brad B. Kuhn
Congress, state legislatures, and the public caught eminent domain fever following the United States Supreme Court's 2005 announcement of the decision in Kelo v. City of
New London decision.  Now, California courts seem to have jumped on the bandwagon, issuing a series of key eminent domain decisions this year.  In just the past few
weeks, courts have issued two rulings landowners applaud (see California Supreme Court Seeks to Clarify Roles of Judge and Jury in Eminent Domain Cases, and
California Court of Appeal Approves of New Method to Value Business Goodwill in Eminent Domain Cases).  Now, the court has issued a decision condemning agencies
can tout.  In State Route 4 Bypass Authority v. Superior Court of Contra Costa County, the court confronted the often misunderstood question of whether a dedication
requirement satisfies the constitutional requirement that it be "roughly proportional."

Eminent domain is the power of a government body to take private property for public use.  Numerous public and quasi-public agencies (such as airport authorities, highway
commissions, and community development agencies) are authorized to use eminent domain.  Private property owners are entitled to compensation for any property taken
under eminent domain.  
The taking of PHA-owned property under eminent domain is exempt from the requirements of Section 18 of the Housing Act of 1937, as amended, 24 CFR 905, Subpart M,
and 24 CFR 970.  However, due to HUD’s interest in PHA-owned property (under the Annual Contributions Contract), HUD approval is necessary for eminent domain
involving any PHA-owned property.  
The taking of property under eminent domain

The California Coastal Commission granted a permit to appellants to replace a small bungalow on their beachfront lot with a larger house upon the condition that they allow
the public an easement to pass across their beach, which was located between two public beaches. The County Superior Court granted appellants a writ of administrative
mandamus and directed that the permit condition be struck. However, the State Court of Appeal reversed, ruling that imposition of the condition did not violate the Takings
Clause of the Fifth Amendment, as incorporated against the States by the Fourteenth Amendment.


Eminent Domain Measures Set for First Hearing in Assembly
As Assembly Member Hector De La Torre's ACA 8 will be heard in the Assembly Judiciary Committee on July 3. Counties will recall that this measure provides significant
new protections for homeowners and small businesses from eminent domain for purposes of transfer to a private party.
The CSAC Board of Directors has unanimously supported constitutional protection for homeowners and small businesses from eminent domain when the property is to be
transferred to a private person. [FULL STORY]

Court of Appeal Upholds
Eminent Domain Law’s Special Legal-Issues Motion Procedure
by K. Erik Friess and Bradford B. Kuhn
In 2001, aiming to streamline eminent domain litigation and reduce the need for trials, the Legislature enacted Code of Civil Procedure section 1260.040.  Under that law, at
least 60 days before trial parties to an eminent domain action may bring a motion requesting the judge to decide any evidentiary or legal issue affecting the determination of
compensation.  In Dina v. People ex rel. Department of Transportation 2007 Cal.App.LEXIS 932 -- the first published Court of Appeal opinion addressing the validity of this
procedure -- a Court of Appeal in Los Angeles upheld the statute’s constitutionality and explained how it can be applied, including its use to determine liability in an inverse
condemnation action.
Section 1260.040’s motion procedure can be particularly beneficial to public agencies which can use the procedure to have a judge, rather than a jury, determine complex or
tricky evidentiary or legal issues that could be missed or confused by a jury. And by addressing these issues prior to the valuation trial, agencies can promote early
settlement discussions and achieve resolutions of key disputes.  

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the
State of South Carolina:
Section 28-4-20. (A) To the extent reasonably possible, governmental entities shall avoid adopting or enforcing regulations in a manner that constitutes a taking of property
requiring the payment of just compensation in accordance with the Constitution of this state or of the United States or which would require compensation under the
provisions of this chapter.
In cases wherein the adoption or enforcement of a regulation appears to give rise to a right to compensation under the Constitution of this state or of the United States, under
the common law of this state, under the statutes of this state, or under the provisions of this section, the proposed regulation shall be treated as an acquisition of an interest
in real property under the Eminent Domain Procedure Act and the governmental entity shall proceed to condemn that interest in real property in accordance with the
provisions of the Eminent Domain Procedure Act.
Any regulation of real property shall give rise to a right to compensation when an appraisal or other valuation pursuant to this section or the Eminent Domain Procedure Act
indicates a substantial diminution of the total value of the real property resulting from the regulation.
Section 28-4-30. (A) For the purposes of this chapter, in appraising property rights which may be acquired through land use regulation and in accordance with the
procedures set forth in the Eminent Domain Procedure Act, the following additional factors shall be taken into account:

California Court of Appeal Approves of New Method to Value Business Goodwill in Eminent Domain Cases
by David Graeler and Kathlynn Smith
What is business goodwill, and how is it properly valued?  This is the primary issue addressed in the recent Court of Appeal decision of Inglewood Redevelopment Agency v.
Aklilu (July 30, 2007, B185107) ___ Cal.App.4th ___ [2007 Cal. App. LEXIS 1258].  Business goodwill is defined by the Code of Civil Procedure as the “benefits that accrue to
a business as a result of its location, reputation for dependability, skill or quality, and any other circumstances resulting in probable retention of old or acquisition of new
patronage.” (Cal. Code Civ. Proc. §1263.510.)  The process of quantifying goodwill value is difficult because it is an intangible asset.  Recognizing the complicated nature of
valuing goodwill, the California Supreme Court in People ex rel. Department of Transportation v. Muller (1984) 36 Cal.3d 263, held that there is no single acceptable method
to value goodwill.  In approving the use of an excess earnings approach to value goodwill, Muller found that the nature of the business will necessarily affect the method in
which goodwill is analyzed.  

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The Los Angeles County Recorder, upon payment of proper fees and taxes, will accept any document which is authorized or required by California law to be recorded, if the
document contains required information and if it is photographically reproducible.

Anderson Real Estate Association-Virtual Library

What an Escrow Officer Does

Where to report mortgage Fraud


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Lessons in Lighting is a basic course intended for those new to the lighting industry. We strongly recommend that you study the lessons sequentially as each subsequent
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Broad Coalition Introduces
Eminent Domain Reform Package
Group Introduces ACA 8 and a Companion Statutory Measure to Protect Homeowners and Small Businesses from Eminent Domain
Sacramento, CA – A broad coalition of homeowner groups, small business representatives, labor, environmental, community and ethnic organizations today joined
Assemblyman Hector De La Torre (D-South Gate) in unveiling a package of eminent domain reforms that would provide homeowners and small businesses with new,
strong protections against eminent domain. Authored by De La Torre, Assembly Constitutional Amendment 8 and a companion statutory measure (soon to be amended) are
in direct response to the U.S. Supreme Court’s “Kelo” decision. They include a constitutional prohibition on the use of eminent domain to take an owner-occupied home to
convey to another private party, as well as new restrictions on the taking of small business properties for conveyance to private parties. ACA 8, the constitutional amendment,
is aimed for the 2008 ballot.
“Today we are unveiling a package that would provide California homeowners and small businesses with new and unprecedented protections against eminent domain,”
said Assemblymember De La Torre, author of the legislative package. “Two years ago, the U.S. Supreme Court’s infamous ‘Kelo’ decision sparked a nationwide outrage
focusing on abuses of eminent domain. This package is in direct response to that decision.”
Ken Willis, president of the League of California Homeowners said, “If passed by the legislature and approved by the voters, this package would provide California
homeowners long overdue protections from eminent domain for private development. The League of California Homeowners wholeheartedly supports this package and will
work with our legislators to place the constitutional amendment before the voters in 2008 and to pass the companion statutory measure.”
ACA 8, a constitutional amendment to be placed on the 2008 ballot would:

Home Insecurity
How Widespread Appraisal Fraud Puts Homeowners At Risk
By David Callahan
View the document (pdf)
Many Americans have reduced the equity in their home to pay off credit card debts and cover day-to-day expenses. More troubling still is evidence that many appraisers
fraudulently inflate property values during the buying or refinancing of homes. This paper explores the implications of appraisal fraud.

Appraisal Fraud Likely Greater Than Reported
by Broderick Perkins

TITLE 26--INTERNAL REVENUE CODE    Subtitle F--Procedure and Administration
Subchapter B--Assessable Penalties
6701. Penalties for aiding and abetting understatement of   tax liability

Treasury Department
Circular No. 230 (Revised 7-94) 31 Code of Federal Regulations Subtitle A, Part 10
Regulations Governing the Practice of Attorneys, Certified Public Accountants, Enrolled Agents, Enrolled Actuaries and Appraisers before the Internal Revenue Service
NOTE: The entire table of contents is listed below. However, only excerpts of Circular 230 that are relevant to material covered in the textbook are included below

Q Theory of Investment, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Real Estate Valuation: A Synthesis

Real estate’s ‘dirty little secret’
‘Appraisal inflation’ a worry for housing experts

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Step-by-Step Directions Help You Measure Square Footage
Each year, home owners discover that their new home's square footage is not the figure that was stated when the house was advertised. Owners sometimes decide to sue
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Stupid Appraisal Talk

Welcome to the Affordable Housing Design Advisor - A tool, resource, idea bank and step-by step guide to Design in affordable housing.

Commercial Investment Real Estate, a magazine of the CCIM Institute,

The central purpose of this article is to describe the research, procedures, steps, and processes involved in
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The most typical real estate development procedure may be outlined as follows:

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How to Avoid (or Survive) an
IRS Valuation
Audit: A Report From the First National IRS
Symposium on Valuation Issues
By Roger E. Wilde*
Just this past February, the Los Angeles Chapter of the American Society of
Appraisers (ASA) held the first National IRS Symposium on Valuation Issues in
Cerritos, California.
Approximately 165 appraisers from various disciplines (business valuation, real
estate, personal property and art, equipment) heard the top IRS officials in valuation,
appraisal, estate and gift tax, Office of Professional Responsibility, and Abusive
Transactions. According to Dennis Webb, President of ASA’s Los Angeles Chapter, the
IRS wanted to share information with the appraisal community about the newlyimplemented
changes in their national appraisal program.

Commercial Real Estate Data Laboratory (CREDL) -

National Association of Industrial and Office Properties (NAIOP)  Government Affairs

City of Los Angeles, Adaptive Reuse

Landlord Tenant Handbook,for (City of Los Angeles) Rental Units subject to the
Rent Stabilization Ordinance

RESIDENTIAL VACANCY DATA  Individually Metered Apartment Vacancy Survey data and Residential Meter
Activity data are produced on a monthly basis by the City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and distributed by the Los Angeles Housing Department. Please
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There are numerous and significant differences between medical office buildings and standard office buildings that must be considered, researched, and addressed by
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Architectural Acoustics and Lighting

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NAREIT's Detailed Analysis of the REIT Improvement Act (January 3, 2005)  REITs: Stunning Performance Steady Growth

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Commercial Real Estate: Analyzing & Due Diligence

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Welcome to
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California) Capital

Real Estate Research Institute: All
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The REIT and real estate
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As of January 23, 2006, the
United States Department of Energy requires central air conditioners and heat pumps to meet an efficiency rating of 13 SEER or above. Most
systems installed in homes prior to this date are rated at an 8 to 10 SEER.

Highest and Best Use of Power Plants

A probabilistic seismic hazard map is a map that shows the hazard from earthquakes that geologists and seismologists agree could occur in California. It is probabilistic in
the sense that the analysis takes into consideration the uncertainties in the size and location of earthquakes and the resulting ground motions that can affect a particular site.

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Electro-Magnetic Fields: The following scientific, government and international agencies have EMF-related information you may want to review"

Environmental Terms

"A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home"

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The California legislature passed the
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The Director, Soil Survey Division, is responsible for: overall policy formulation; budget development and implementation; program development and implementation;
collaboration with others at the national and international level to carry out
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Online Web Soil Survey  - Official USDA soil information as viewable maps and tables for more than 2300 soil surveys.


Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zones

California Seismic Hazard Maps

California Department of Education

California Land Use Planning Information Network (LUPIN)

California Housing Finance Agency

Title 24 Building Standards
California's building regulations are contained in Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations. This link provides a description of each Part of Title 24, and indicates the
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IN EXISTING WOOD-FRAME RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WITH SOFT, WEAK OR OPEN-FRONT WALLS with Commentary by the Structural Engineers Association of California
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California Building Standards Commission-
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Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice
USPAP Standards please see:

Property Tax Appraisals and the Reuse of Inner-City Properties

City of Los Angeles, Department of Building and Safety

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Home Ownership-This section provides you with information and resources to help you with buying a home, selling a home, and other homeownership issues. To begin,
please select one of the following:

In the continuing effort to improve the delivery of services to the public, the Department of City Planning has developed the Zone Information and Map Access System (
ZIMAS provides the City of Los Angeles with the foundation to present an Internet-based Geographic Information System (GIS) with the purpose of empowering its users with
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This is the latest inter-agency partnership on this project and the latest incremental step by the National Register in digitizing the documentation on nearly 79,0000
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preservation of historic buildings through various means. One of these is the program of
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Historic Preservation Easements A Historic Preservation Tool with Federal Tax Benefits

Conservation Easements Conserving Land, Water and a Way of Life

Bookmark the Los Angeles Conservancy’s Web site as your one-stop "portal" to information on historic preservation and Los Angeles. We think that you may be interested in
the following sites:  
National Links.

California is characterized by a rich historical past and a bright, promising future. The State's historical resources represent the contributions and collective human
experiences of a diversified population spanning 10,000-12,000 years of occupancy in California. This heritage is embodied in the cultural and historical landscapes of
California as evidenced by the archaeological remains, historic buildings, traditional customs, tangible artifacts, historical documents, and public records extant in California.
All these evidences of the past contribute to the sum total of California's history. Such historical resources provide continuity with our past and enhance our quality of life.

Timber and
timberland appraisal is an extensive process, the information provided here is not intended to teach you the appraisal process. Rather, it is intended to explain
the terminology, processes, methods and principles used in the appraisal process.

The Law Encyclopedia is a new community based project to provide short, simple explanations of legal terms. f you would like to submit an entry, please reply to the email
address below.  Enjoy!

The FFIEC is under contractual agreement with Tele Atlas, its data (
Census) source vendor for this system, which limits Internet users to enter one address at a time and
obtain the appropriate geocoding information. For batch geocoding, please contact Tele Atlas at InfoNA@teleatlas.com for ordering the data.

U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor

U.S. Census Bureau

If you have a listing over $1 million, www.UniqueGlobalEstates.com is a free MLS for estate properties. With thousands of international listings, this is a great way to provide
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What is Emporis Buildings about?
Emporis Buildings is a gigantic database on buildings and structures. It gives users access to real-estate and architecture in more than 8,000 cities worldwide. To access
buildings in a specific city, either use Emporis Geography or search for the desired destination using the search boxes above.  

If you have a property that is in foreclosure, you can also post your listing on
www.foreclosure.com for no charge. This site obviously attracts bargain hunters and
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On December 11, 1980, President Jimmy Carter signed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund),
creating the Federal government's program to clean up the nation's uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Through the Superfund program, the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) and its partners addresses abandoned, accidentally spilled, or illegally dumped hazardous waste that pose current or future threats to human health or the
environment. There is at least one
Superfund site in every State (locate a Superfund site). Read the entire story

California Coastal Commission
The Coastal Commission was established by voter initiative in 1972 (Proposition 20) and made permanent by the Legislature in 1976. The mission of the Commission, as
the lead agency responsible for carrying out California's coastal management program, is to plan for and regulate development in the coastal zone consistent with the
policies of the California Coastal Act. www.coastal.ca.gov

Some Quick Green
Roof Facts... There are two types of green roofs: extensive and intensive.  Extensive green roofs range from one to five inches in soil depth, normally consist of mosses,
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Intensive green roofs require at least a foot of soil depth, an elaborate irrigation and drainage system, and require maintenance. Intensive green roofs contain trees and
shrubs and are typically designed to be publicly accessible.

Benefits of Green Buildings A Report to California’s Sustainable Building Task Force
October 2003

Defining Appropriate Reuse Strategies: When to Lease, When to Sell, and When to Dispose of Property at No Consideration

Homeglossary.com - The World's Most Complete Real Estate Directory  

Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance,
pollutant, or contaminant. Cleaning up and reinvesting in these properties takes development pressures off of undeveloped, open land, and both improves and protects the
 On this site, you can find information about US EPA's Brownfields Program including the Brownfields Law, US EPA Brownfields Grants, technical tools and
resources as well as information on brownfields projects across the county.

Raw land purchase agreement

The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) was created in 1991 by Governor's Executive Order. The six Boards, Departments and Office were placed within
the Cal/EPA "umbrella" to create a cabinet level voice for the protection of human health and the environment and to assure the coordinated deployment of State resources.
Our mission is to restore, protect and enhance the environment, to ensure public health, environmental quality and economic vitality.

Getting Raw Land - Not a Raw Deal! by Dan Auito
There is more to buying raw land than meets the eye and more than a few individuals have wished they'd had a second chance upon finding themselves duped, conned,
misled, ill-advised, uninformed, oversold, undereducated and often unprepared. They realize, often too late, that a raw land purchase should be properly investigated,
evaluated and negotiated using a logical and rational plan

CERES is an information system developed by the California Resources Agency to facilitate access to a variety of electronic data describing California's rich and diverse
environments. The goal of CERES is to improve environmental analysis and planning by integrating natural and cultural resource information from multiple contributors and
by making it available and useful to a wide variety of users.

What Does the Evidence Say About NPL Listing and Home Prices?

EPA EnviroMapper for Envirofacts    

Port’s Appraisers Instructed to Undervalue Residential Property in SeaTac Purchase Zone
In preparing for future purchases of homes in SeaTac’s Westside area, the Port of Seattle has instructed its appraisers to set the value of property below what comparable
property in non-airport-impacted areas is worth. Homeowners who accept Port purchase offers will thus lose the difference between the true value of their homes and the
sharply reduced value caused by Airport activities. Appraisers are to value properties in comparison to other Airport-impacted properties, instead of using homes not
impacted by overflights as ‘comparables’.

Presented to the American Bar Association Real Property Programs ...
Instructions to appraisers often include valuations other than market value, as follows: Use Value ‐ “Use value is the value a specified property has for a specific use”. 9 The
valuation ...

We use
the Adjusted Present Value (APV) method with Monte Carlo simulations for real
estate valuation purposes. Monte Carlo simulations make it possible to incorporate the
uncertainty of valuation parameters, in particular of future cash flows, of discount rates and of
terminal values. We use empirical data to extract information about the probability
distributions of the various parameters and suggest a simple model to compute the discount
rate. We forecast the term structure of interest rates using a Cox et al. (1985) model, and then
add a premium that is related to both the real estate market and selected property-specific
characteristics. Our empirical results suggest that the central values of our simulations are in
most cases slightly less than the hedonic values. The confidence intervals are found to be
most sensitive to the long-term equilibrium interest rate being used and to the expected
growth rate of the terminal value.

Click on the following links to download the associated files:
Eminent Domain
PowerPoint Presentation from 3/28/06 Luncheon

Asbestos-A Contractors

Zillow.com launched in beta today, offering free home-value estimates and data on more than 60 million houses in the United States.

Los Angeles Times,
Home Prices

NavigateLA was developed to service not only the current needs to access GIS information, but also to service the future needs. As a result of this approach, the application
reflects options to access data that is currently in development, as well as data that is yet not available on a City-wide basis. Therefore, when you select the following options
the data may only be available for certain areas of the City, and will be completed in the future.

National Geographic's redesigned online atlas gives you the world—your way.  
Find nearly any place on Earth, and view it by population, climate, and much more. Plus,
browse antique maps, find country facts, or plan your next outdoor adventure with our trail maps.

Volume 9, Number 3, 2003 of the
Journal of Real Estate Portfolio Management Public and Private Real Estate in a Mixed-Asset Portfolio  Isolating Important Driving Forces in
Indirect Real Estate Markets The Role of Singapore REITs in a Downside Risk Asset Allocation Framework Potential Environmental Liabilities with Industrial Properties in
the United Kingdom Prepayment Risk of Public Housing MortgagesThe Devaluation of Capital Budgeting in Real Estate Development Firms all articles listed here are
available for download in portable document format.

Real Property Appraisal Body of Knowledge -The Real Property Appraisal Body of Knowledge (BOK) is an outline of concepts, theories, paradigms, and applications of the
real property appraisal profession. The profession’s
knowledge base is a tree with three parts: roots, a trunk, and branches. Roots (from economics) form the foundation of the tree and provide support for the trunk and
branches.  The trunk, composed of the valuation process and the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) provides support for the branches.
Branches represent individual appraisal assignments and specialties. Within each branch are many twigs which represent
subspecialties within the discipline.  

Major Schools of Economic Theory-The word "economics" is derived from oikonomikos, which means skilled in household management. Although the word is very old, the
discipline of economics as we understand it today is a relatively recent development. Modern economic thought emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries as the western world
began its transformation from an agrarian to an industrial society.

The Economics of Real Estate Principles

Cost, Price and Value

Note: Los Angeles County Department of Public Works is able to provide groundwater elevations for many wells located within the County of Los Angeles. The California
Department of Water Resources (DWR) is able to provide water level information and well completion data for other wells. The DWR website is:

SPONSORS' GUIDE TO PROPERTY APPRAISAL And The Determination of Just Compensation

Title 32--National Defense  CHAPTER V--DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PART 644--

Chapter 5 details the real estate market forces that are shaping the County and Town’s development environment. The real estate market analysis reflects the most current
market conditions and analyzes development, leasing, sales, and absorption trends that have occurred

(a) Purpose. T
he Rules in this subchapter apply to the underwriting, market analysis, appraisal,
environmental site assessment, property condition assessment, and reserve for replacement standards employed
by the Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs (the "Department" or "TDHCA"). This chapter provides
rules for the underwriting review of an affordable housing development's financial feasibility and economic
viability. In addition, this chapter guides the underwriting staff in making recommendations to the Executive
Award and Review Advisory Committee ("the Committee"), Executive Director, and TDHCA Governing Board ("the
Board") to help ensure procedural consistency in the award determination process. Due to the unique
characteristics of each development the interpretation of the rules and guidelines described in this subchapter is
subject to the discretion of the Department and final determination by the Board.

The (Los Angeles County) Assessor has developed the
Property Assessment Information System (PAIS) to enhance Internet services to the public. Currently you may
research assessment information for individual parcels, print Assessor maps, and search for sales within the past two years. This system is best viewed using Internet
Explorer 4.0 or higher and a screen resolution of 600 x 800.

FEMA’s Map Service Center (MSC) has a new look and feel that is designed to provide you with the same great functionality, but with more information and resources at your
disposal.  The new MSC website is not only your official government source, but the premier site for flood hazard mapping information, products, and services.  We hope our
revamped website better serves your personal or professional needs.

FEMA Library

USPAP Administrative Review please see Advisory Opinion 6 (AO-6):


Banks and Lending, Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)

'Lectric Law Library Lawcopedia's LANDLORD - TENANT & Real Property Issues Topic Area

Side-by-side comparison of 49 CFR 24 Subpart B
Federal Agencies may find that, for Federal eminent domain purposes, the terms "fair market value" (as used throughout this subpart) and "market value," which may be the
more typical term in private transactions, may be synonymous

Determine Fair Market Value of Property...

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR)
e-CFR Data is current as of November 1, 2005
Title 12: Banks and Banking

Employee Relocation Council ERC

HUD Webcast - FHA Appraiser Training

Department of Housing and Urban Development 24 CFR Parts 25 and 203 FHA Single Family Mortgage Insurance;
Lender Accountability for Appraisals; Final Rule Standards for Unique and Miscellaneous Appraisal Problems

Department of Housing and Urban Development

Update to FHA Appraisal and Adoption of Revised Appraisal Reporting Forms (2005)

LII - Legal Information Institute-  U.S. Code

LII- Legal Information Institute   Wex is an ambitious effort to construct a collaboratively-created, public-access law dictionary and encyclopedia. It is sponsored and hosted by
the Legal Information Institute at the Cornell Law School (http://www.lawschool.cornell.edu/). Much of the material that appears in Wex was originally developed for the LII's
"Law about..." pages, to which Wex is the successor. -


U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration Appraisal Standards

Federal National Mortgage Association
FannieMae APPRAISAL Standards

Resolution of the Association of Appraiser Regulatory Officials October 10, 2005 To Fannie Mae

Appraisal Forms
Fannie Forms

Appraisal Standards For the Department of Veteran Affairs
VA Standards please see: Chapter 11

Appraisal Standards For the State of California,
Board of Equalization (
Property Tax Appraisals)

About Home Insurance, About Homeowners
Homeowners insurance is about protecting you from financial loss. It cannot and never will replace all the memories and the good times shared with friends and family
around your dining room table. It will, however, help you rebuild your home and replace lost items -provided you were prudent enough to have the right kind of coverage when
you needed it most.

The Center sponsors research by its faculty on several areas of real estate including the economics of property markets, the impacts of regulation, and sources of equity and
debt financing. Faculty-supervised student thesis research also contributes to building an inventory of new information. The research program is essential to promoting new
knowledge, advancing teaching techniques, and bridging the gap between theory and practice.  The results of faculty research are published by the Center as working
papers before they go on to professional journals. Selected student theses are also available through the Center. Working papers and a research newsletter abstracting
recent faculty and student research are disseminated within MIT and to other universities as well as to the industry.  
Through its research, MIT/CRE seeks to broaden the understanding of the operation of an industry that represents a quarter of the US gross domestic product.   
The following list includes only our most recent papers. Many can be downloaded. You can also download the full publications list with order form (pdf 40k) or contact us and
we will send it to you.  Note: papers designated Technical are intended primarily for the academic community.

NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Surveying

Subsurface rights appraisal

Topographic Surveying

Basic theories of surveying

This ATG has been developed to assist Internal Revenue Service (Service) examiners in the review and examination of cost segregation studies. The primary goals are to
provide examiners with an understanding of why cost segregation studies are performed for federal income tax purposes; how cost segregation studies are prepared; and,
what to look for in the review and examination of these studies.
The ATG was developed by a cross-functional team of Service engineers and agents and is not intended as an official IRS pronouncement. Accordingly, it may not be cited
as authority

The following is a
partial list of most used symbols throughout our floor plans.  It should help you understand and therefore better visualize the rooms.  Printing this page for
further reference when viewing actual floor plans may be a good idea.  Please note that due to different screens size and resolutions, we could not include a scale to any of
the plans, although some of them do have measurements.

Lessons In Lighting  
Lightolier's "Lessons In Lighting" is a FREE online course on lighting fundamentals, and is intended for those new to the lighting industry or for
professionals looking to "brush up" on their basic lighting knowledge.  The program consists of 24 lessons and a final exam that cover the entire lighting system...
luminaires, lamps, ballasts, and controls. Additionally, the student will find lessons on lighting design & application, light & color, lighting terminology, and other related
topics. Whether you are a lighting end user, electrical distributor, contractor, lighting specifier, educator, or student, you'll find this course to be a helpful program for your
lighting education.

Lightolier's state-of –the-art laboratory is located within our 320,000 square foot corporate headquarters and manufacturing facility in Fall River, MA.
The TechCenter is part
demonstration facility, part workplace and throughout, a place for exploration and discovery. Retail, hospitality, office and residential vignettes as well as hands-on product
demonstration areas communicate the impact of high-quality lighting to architects, designers, builders, contractors and distributors. A visit to the TechCenter will allow you to
experience first hand the technology of lighting and various techniques of lighting design.

Most people believe that
reading floor plans correctly is simple, and for the most part this is true. But there are, in fact, certain aspects you should be aware of to understand
them to your best advantage. If you're about to embark on something as important as selecting a house plan, it's essential you know how to spot potential problems to avoid
headaches and disappointments later. After all, these are decisions that will affect where you're going to spend most of your time in years to come. By using common sense
and asking your contractor some pertinent questions, you can make most of those decisions with ease. It doesn't matter if your new home is colonial, Spanish, Tudor or
country French -- it's what will be behind that facade that counts!

Journal of Real Estate Literature is the official publication of the American Real Estate Society (ARES). The purpose of this journal is to provide a comprehensive source
of information about real estate research in order to encourage research and education in industry and academia. The scope of the journal goes beyond that of traditional
literature journals that only list published research. This journal also includes working papers, dissertations, book reviews and articles on literature reviews on specialized
topics, real estate information technology, and international
real estate.

Mass Appraisal of Income-Producing Properties
Whether valuing income-producing property or residential property, you can use similar information and methods for collecting and analyzing data into base standards
(benchmarks and units of comparison). However, because income-producing property includes a variety of building designs and construction materials as well as
differences in quality, the program you use must encompass these variations.

REIT Indices

Since the
master lease provides for an income level to the REIT net of all operating expenses, the only out-of-pocket expenses to the REIT will be accounting, legal and
internal administration or management expenses.  These
management expenses are estimated at five percent of effective gross income, or $6,000, based on the management experience of other properties.  The net operating
income for the property is $120,000 less $6,000, or $114,000.

course applies economic and financial theory to the problem of real estate investment. It provides an overview of commercial properties including office and retail;
residential properties including single and multi-family; securitization including mortgages and real estate investment trusts and real estate portfolio management.

How Assessors Unfairly Penalize REITs

Name: Daisuke Mihara (Mr.)
Daisuke Mihara is a licensed real estate appraiser and member of the Japanese association of Real Estate Appraisal.  Tanizawa Sogo Appraisal Co., Ltd
E-mail Daisuke.Mihara@tmaxv.co.jp
How should the cap rata be interpreted in recent real estate

U.S. Income Tax Return for Real Estate Investment Trusts

Stigma Busters
A Primer on Selling Haunted Houses and Other Stigmatized Property

The Consumer Services section deals directly with all consumers by responding to a variety of requests for assistance. This includes answering questions regarding
policies, claims, companies, etc., as well as handling consumer complaints. This section deals with many types of insurance problems including auto insurance,
homeowners insurance, title insurance, bail bonds and other forms of insurance products.

California / Caltrans / Right-of-Way / Manual / Chapter 9 Online Manual Chapter 9 Updated: May 19, 2004

Eminent Domain Watch



Appraisal Standards For the State of California,
Department of Transportation

Question: I am an independent real estate appraiser having a hard time making ends meet. Recently I heard about a part time position called probate referee that involves
appraising estates. Can you tell me more about this job and what I need to do to qualify?
— Sandra

State of California, Probate Code
CHAPTER 1.  GENERAL PROVISIONS ...........................
Article 1.  General Provisions ........................    ...........,,,.. 8850-8852
Article 2.  Discovery of Property of Decedent .................. 8870-8873
Article 1.  Procedure .....................................            ......... .
Article 2.  Designation and Removal of Probate Referee. 8920-8924
Article 3.  Time for Probate Referee Appraisal ................8940-8941
Article 4.  Commission and Expenses of Probate Referee 8960-8964
Article 5.  Transitional Provision .....................................   8980

Important Information
The opinions on the searchable Official Reports page are updated monthly and are current to within 90 days of filing. Caution: All opinion text conforms to what has been
published in the California Official Reports, but recent opinions (i.e., those not yet reported in the bound volumes) remain subject to additional correction. (See Cal. Rules of
Court, rule 976 (e).)

PMA in Mid-Atlantic Real Estate Journals
PMA is pleased to partner with Mid-Atlantic Real Estate Journal to author a monthly column on real-time commercial management issues. The columns will address real-
time issues, trends and actions affecting the management of office buildings.   Topics featured in PMA's columns are listed in the index to the right.

Valuation without value theory: A North American "appraisal"
Canonne, Jean
Executive Summary: Competence supposes a professional foundation that includes a solid understanding of theory and its historical development. In real estate appraisal,
for example, this theory is that of economic value, and its history spans from Xenophon to Ricardo and from Marx to Hobson. This literature review shows that the core of real
estate appraisal literature has little place for this theoretical foundation, and allocates even fewer pages to the history of economic value. Appraisers face the challenge of
erecting the edifice of basic concepts, laws and principles in appraisal so that the field can advance from art to science, and from trade to profession.
Real estate appraisal is an ongoing concern with an ambition for technical excellence and reliability. It is nevertheless disquieting to realize that errors may creep in and
become systematic (e.g., Canonne and Macdonald, 2001). A detailed scrutiny of over one hundred major North American real estate handbooks and real estate appraisal
manuals, treatises and anthologies, starting with Hurd (1903) and covering one hundred years, reveals that the theory of value-from Xenophon to Ricardo, Marx and Hobson-
is systematically neglected.

If you are involved in
leasing commercial real estate in any capacity whatsoever - whether experienced or a novice - you'll find the information and tools offered at this site to
be a powerful resource.  Here you'll find tips, techniques and strategies for leasing commercial real estate as well as comprehensive information about every critical aspect
of the actual process itself. Without question, this web site is the information source for learning how to understand, negotiate and administer a commercial lease.

Welcome to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's
Real Estate Acquisition and Relocation Web site.  In this site you will find useful information and
resources to implement HUD funded programs and projects in accordance with the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970
(Uniform Act) and other HUD requirements such as Section 104(d) of the Housing and Community Development Act.  The Uniform Act provides important protections and
assistance for people affected by the acquisition, rehabilitation, or demolition of real property for Federal or federally funded projects. This law was enacted by Congress to
ensure that people whose real property is acquired, or who move as a direct result of projects receiving Federal funds, are treated fairly and equitably and receive assistance
in moving from the property they occupy.

Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (Uniform Act)
In a changing America, government programs designed to benefit the public as a whole often result in acquisition of private property, and sometimes in the displacement of
people from their homes, businesses or farms. On January 2, 1971, Public Law 91-646, the "Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of
1970," (Uniform Act) was signed into law. The Uniform Act, provides important protections and assistance for people affected by Federally funded projects. This law was
enacted by Congress to ensure that people whose real property is acquired, or who move as a result of projects receiving Federal funds, will be treated fairly and equitably
and will receive assistance in moving from the property they occupy.

Pursuant to
Section 33411 of the California Community
Redevelopment Law (Health and Safety Code Section 33000 et
seq.; the “CRL”), a method or plan (these “Rules and
Regulation”) must be prepared for the relocation of families,
persons and non-profit local community institutions to be
temporarily or permanently displaced from a designated project
area. This is the case whether or not the redevelopment agency
intends to ever relocate any person, household, business or
institution, or has the authority to do so.

State Court Systems
Appellate & Supreme Court Opinions & Decisions

Landlord Tenant Law

Full-text state statutes and legislation on the Internet

This page summarizes KnowledgePlex content about All Topics. This is a good place to see what content is most popular, most recently published, or most recently added
to KnowledgePlex. To do this, change the Sort By pulldown menu below.

California Apartment Owner Association -
"State Laws Now in Effect."

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) New Law Requires Lenders to Cancel PMI
If you are a homeowner, you will want to be aware of a new law that establishes rights for homeowners and rules for lenders regarding private mortgage insurance (PMI)
cancellation. With this knowledge, you may eliminate premiums you may be paying unnecessarily.

Real Property Papers (ASA)
The Capitol Hill Declaration on Corridor Valuation: An Appeal for a Paradigm Shift from Monopolistic to Market Corridor Valuation Methods And Federal Rights-of-Way Rent
Schedules.  The following paper talks about Public Interest Value. It was written by Real Property Committee Member Charles Warren, ASA. The paper offers an alternative
view to that of the current Appraisal Institute position. Any and all comments should be directed to: Charles Warren, ASA.  
Public Interest Value Paper

Appraisal Standards For Federal Acquisition, Uniform Appraisal Standards for Federal Land Acquisitions
(The Yellow Book) Please See:

Standards for Unique and Miscellaneous Appraisal Problems

Appraising REO Properties
by Bradley H. Ellis, IFA
It is January, 2002 and most of us are still trying to deal with what has become perhaps the busiest period in history for real estate appraisers. Work has been so plentiful
that, in some areas, like Northern California, from about mid November, it was not uncommon to hear pre-recorded messages at appraisal offices saying “We regret, due to
current workloads, that we cannot accept any new orders until next year.” Given that, why would I be writing an article about how you can expand your business into the REO


Synthesizing The USPAP with Supplemental Standards in Eminent Domain Appraisals
by Steven Santora, IFAS
Ever since The Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) took effect, independent eminent domain appraisers, government appraisers and
government agencies have wrestled with the apparent contradictions between the USPAP and government standards that arise from takings case law and takings statutory
law. The quandary involves whether the laws of these various jurisdictions are Supplemental Standards that can be added to the USPAP “minimum” or whether there is
sufficient conflict that the Jurisdictional Exception (JE) is necessary to simply void anything in the USPAP that might look problematic.

Lumens, Illuminance, Foot-candles and bright shiny beads….
In defining how bright something is, we have two things to consider.
1. How bright it is at the source- How Bright is that light?
2. How much light is falling on something a certain distance away from the light.
Lets' do some definitions now……
We're in America, so we are going to talk about units of measurement that concern distance in feet and inches. So, we will use some terms that folks in Europe don't use.
We're going to talk about "foot-candles".

Valuation Issues: A Perspective from a U.S. Tax Court Judge

The Federal Law Re Donations Of Conservation Easements (and other partial interests) 26 US Code 170(h)

IRS Publication 950 entitled "Introduction to Estate and Gift Taxes"

A Tenants In Common (TIC), also known as Tenancy In Common, investment represents co-ownership of real estate (CORE) by two or more investors. The Tenants In
Common investors possess undivided interests in the property or designated interests of differing sizes.

Treasury Department Circular No. 230 (Rev. 6-2005) Regulations Governing the Practice of Attorneys, Certified Public Accountants, Enrolled Agents, Enrolled Actuaries, and
Appraisers before the Internal Revenue Service

Field Guide to 1031 Exchanges By Mary Martinez, Library Manager
Section 1031 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code allows investors to defer capital gains taxes on the exchange of like-kind properties. 1031, or tax-deferred, exchanges hold
great advantages for both investors and REALTORS®. This Field Guide provides access to articles, manuals, forms, ideas, and other information to help you start building
your 1031 niche.

PDF] ADJUSTMENTS TO UNITS OF VALUE Units of Value. For appraisal ...... Revised: January 1, 2001 Page: C.1 ADJUSTMENTS TO UNITS OF VALUE Units of Value. For
appraisal purposes, land valuation is often performed using those ...

By Benjamin Powell, Ph.D
Project Director: Adrian T. Moore, Ph.D
April 2004

Office of Chief Counsel Internal Revenue Service Memorandum

Appraisal Standards For the Department of Treasury Internal Revenue Service
Please See:
http://www.irs.ustreas.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p561.pdf, or

Manufactured Housing

State of California Mobilehome Residency Law


State of California (Caltrans), Right of Way Appraisal Manuel

E2018-01 Standard Guide for Property Condition Assessments: Baseline Property Condition Assessment Process
Please See:

Computer Based Training
Available All Day, Every Day


USC Digital Archive

The American Cities Atlas Project is a continuing public education project of Professor William Bowen. It is produced for the support of instructional programs in the public
schools of California and on the campuses of the California State University System throughout the state. Free, unlimited access is granted to faculty and students of these
institutions for non-profit instructional purposes only.

Up construction is one of the fastest growing industries in the United States. At least 10,000 buildings enclosing more than 650 million square feet are constructed
annually. This is due, in part, to the economics of Tilt-Up, which combine reasonable cost with low maintenance, durability, speed of construction, and minimal capital

66410. Short title This division may be cited as
the Subdivision Map Act. (Added by Stats. 1974, Ch. 1536. Effective March 1, 1975.)
66411. Local ordinance
Regulation and control of the design and improvement of subdivisions are vested in the legislative bodies of local agencies. Each local agency shall by ordinance regulate
and control the initial design and improvement of common interest developments as defined in Section 1351 of the Civil Code and subdivisions for which this division
requires a tentative and final or parcel map. In the development, adoption, revision, and application of such ordinance, the local agency shall comply with the provisions of
Section 65913.2. The ordinance shall specifically provide for proper grading and erosion control, including the prevention of sedimentation or damage to offsite property.
Each local agency may by ordinance regulate and control other subdivisions, provided that the regulations are not more restrictive than the regulations for those subdivisions
for which a tentative and final or parcel map are required by this division, and provided further that the regulations shall not be applied to short-term leases (terminable by
either party on not more than 30 days’ notice in writing) of a portion of the operating right-of-way of a railroad corporation as defined by Section 230 of the Public Utilities Code
unless a showing is made in individual cases, under substantial evidence, that public policy necessitates the application of the regulations to those short-term leases in
such individual cases.

11000. (a) "Subdivided lands" and "subdivision" refer to improved or unimproved land or lands, wherever situated within California, divided or proposed to be divided for the
purpose of sale or lease or financing, whether immediate or future, into five or more lots or parcels. However, land or lands sold by lots or parcels of not less
than 160 acres which are designated by lot or parcel description by government surveys and appear as such on the current assessment roll of the county in which the land or
lands are situated shall not be
deemed to be "subdivided lands" or "a subdivision" within the meaning of this section, unless the land or lands are divided or proposed to be divided for the purpose of sale
for oil and gas purposes, in which case the land or lands shall be deemed to be "subdivided lands" or "a subdivision" within the meaning of this section. This chapter also
does not apply to the leasing of apartments, offices, stores, or similar space within an apartment building, industrial building, commercial building, or mobilehome park, as
defined under Section 18214 of the Health and Safety Code, except that the offering of leases for a term in excess of five years to tenants within a mobilehome park as a
mandatory requirement and prerequisite to tenancy within the mobilehome park shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter. The leasing of apartments in a community
apartment project, as defined in Section 11004 in an apartment or similar space within a commercial building or complex, shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter.
(b) Nothing in this section shall in any way modify or affect any of the provisions of Section 66424 of the Government Code. (c) Subdivisions, as defined in Section 10249.1,
which are located entirely outside California shall be exempt from the provisions of this part.

From: HUD USER News

Housing rehabilitation is an important component of any strategy aimed at meeting the nation's affordable housing
needs. Keeping a home in good working order or bringing
one back from a state of disrepair promotes both
sustainability and affordability with every stroke of the
hammer and every plumb line snap. Pursuing a high quality
rehab or renovation can also result in homes that are
better able to withstand storms and other natural

With affordability, sustainability, and durability in
mind, we'd like to call your attention to a set of
popular guidebooks published by HUD that describe state-
of-the-art techniques, materials, and technologies for
housing rehabilitation. The nine-volume series, known
collectively as The Rehab Guide, was developed under the
auspices of the Partnership for Advancing Technology in
Housing (PATH). Each volume is devoted to distinct
elements of a house and covers a range of issues common
to that element. For example, the first volume is titled
Foundations, and covers topics from the design and
engineering aspects of rehabilitating foundation systems
to shoring and repair, waterproofing, crack repair,
drainage, and insulation. The other titles reflect the
building systems and components they address: Exterior
Walls (vol. 2), Roofs (vol. 3), Windows & Doors (vol. 4),
Partitions, Ceilings, Floors & Stairs (vol. 5), Kitchens
& Baths (vol. 6), Electrical/Electronics (vol. 7),
HVAC/Plumbing, (vol. 8), and Site Work (vol. 9).

The content presented in this series has been drawn from
a wide array of reliable construction industry sources,
as well as from well-respected technical trade
publications. Clearly written, generously illustrated,
and easy to use, the guides are spiral bound to permit
them to lie flat... on a workbench, coffee table, or
drawing board near you!

Copies of the guidebooks can be downloaded for free
or ordered from HUD USER for a nominal fee by calling
800-245-2691, option 1.

key ways to avoid buying a bad condo Renter population, homeowner dues become key issues.  Whether you are a first-time home buyer, or a retiree planning to "down-
size" your residence, condominiums are "hot" during the 2006 peak home-buying season. In most communities,

Two important missions of the Governor's Office of Planning and Research are to coordinate state and local planning activities and provide technical assistance to planning
agencies statewide. The Planning, Zoning, and Development Laws is an important tool provided by OPR to help land use professionals keep abreast of the ever changing
land use regulatory environment. It is my sincere hope that this
2000 edition of the Planning, Zoning, and Development Laws will help land use authorities and professionals
discharge their duties in a comprehensive and responsible manner that fosters orderly development and environmental quality.

All about chimneys The
chimney is the engine that drives a wood heat system

Fireplace Design Literature
The Brick Industry Association (http://www.bia.org) has two excellent pamphlets about fireplace and chimney design and construction. Go to their web site and find the
section on
Technical Notes. Click on the following titles:
Residential Fireplace Design
Residential Fireplaces-Details and Construction

This paper examines
the use of expert systems and artificial intelligence, (in particular the application of neural networks) to real estate forecasting. While there is a great
deal of literature about the use of
artificial intelligence for mass appraisal, there is relatively little work on how it can be applied in real estate
forecasting. This paper examines the current uses of artificial intelligence, particularly neural networks, in the
business-forecasting field and considers suitable applications in real estate. The paper also considers the broader
issue of expert systems and how a better system can lead to better results. Some real estate data are used as
simple case studies to demonstrate their use.

This paper describes the ongoing controversy among real estate appraisers concerning
the methods used in appraising linear rights-of-way and provides a look at the two
competing approaches most often the subject of these debates: at-the-fence valuation and corridor valuation. These methods are examined, analyzed and the most
appropriate approach is outlined. The paper also provides a brief look at the ongoing evolution of Texas case 4law regarding the acceptability
of corridor valuation methods.

Appraisal Methods for Real Property
This manual provides county assessors and their staffs with the basic information and procedures to set up and maintain a mass appraisal program for property tax
purposes. A wellrun appraisal program benefits and serves all those who pay property taxes in Oregon. The International Association of Assessing Officers defines mass
appraisal as:
“. . . the systematic appraisal of groups of properties as of a given date using standardized procedures and statistical testing.”
By following the guidelines in this manual, it is possible to achieve accurate, persuasive, and defendable appraisals to use as the basis for property tax assessment. The
cost of estimating property value using other methods would be prohibitive and not in the best interest of the public.

Mobilehome Ombudsman receives and processes complaints from the public and from public officials related to living in manufactured homes and mobilehomes. Staff
provides information, coordination, referrals, and other assistance to help resolve complaints generally related to:
The operation of mobilehome parks related to health and safety matters.
The purchase, sale, financing, titling and registration of manufactured homes and mobilehomes.
The installation, inspection, and maintenance or alteration of manufactured homes, mobilehome accessory structures, and park grounds.   In some cases the Ombudsman
may directly assist in resolving complaints, however, most complaints are forwarded to the state or local authority having jurisdiction for their resolution.

obile homes are subject to the RSO, whether rent is paid for the mobile home and the land upon which the mobile home is located, or rent is paid for the land alone. Also
included are recreational vehicles, as defined in California Civil Code Section 799.29 if located in a mobile home park or recreational vehicle park, whether rent is paid for the
recreational vehicle and the land upon which it is located, or rent is paid for the land alone.  Mobile home parks with permits to operate issued on or after February 10, 1986
and recreational vehicles occupied in a park less than nine months are exempt from the RSO.  Also exempt are tenants under lease agreements exceeding 12 months (See

anufactured Home Appraisal Report

Manufactured Home Appraisal Report
report form is designed to report an appraisal of a one-unit manufactured home; including a manufactured home in a planned unit development (PUD) based on an
interior and exterior inspection of the subject property. A Manufactured home located in either a condominium or cooperative project requires the appraiser to inspect the
project and complete the project information section of the Individual Condominium Unit Appraisal Report or the Individual Cooperative Interest Appraisal Report and attach it
as an addendum to this report.

Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA
Expected Returns and the Expected Growth in Rents of Commercial Real Estate

Sarbanes-Oxley Resources
A Collection of Articles and Tools to Help You Understand and Implement the Law.  The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 changed the way we conduct business in the United
States for the better—but the law is complex and can be confusing. Find below articles, publications and tools to help you understand the law's requirements and manage
the transitions it mandates.

Preparation of Agricultural Conservation Easement Appraisals

SOILS - Tools for Educators

NOTE:  The Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils, Version 2.0, September 2002 is now available in hard copy form. ftp://ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.

The Twelfth District economy continued to expand at a solid pace during the survey period of late November through the beginning of January. Price inflation was modest
overall, helped in part by recent declines in energy prices. Contacts reported moderate wage increases in general, with more rapid increases reported for workers with
specialized skills in selected industries. Retail sales expanded during the holiday season, and service providers reported further demand growth. Manufacturers and
agricultural producers saw strong demand for their products. Activity in residential real estate markets generally remained at high levels but slowed in some areas, while
demand for commercial real estate improved further. District banks reported steady loan demand overall and very good credit quality.

Housing Laws and Presidential Executive Orders

septic system information website explains how to inspect, test, diagnose and repair, septic systems, gives information about alternative septic systems for problem
sites, and includes tables for septic tanks: pumping, size, design, and clearances between septic systems, wells, and other site features and boundaries. This page
organizes and links to our detailed septic system inspection, test, repair, and design articles, including our online septic systems book. Septic testing class presentations,
photos, sketches, tables, links to products and consultants are provided. If

Selected Case Studies  
These Case Studies are in PDF format and contain a large number of graphics. If you are having difficulty opening them in your browser due to their size, you can download
them to your computer using the method described below:
Right click your mouse on the link to the Case study;
From the menu, select "Save Target As..."
Save the filename to the folder of your choice.

First National Tower (PDF/39pgs/1.62mb)

Asbury Villas (PDF/38pgs/4.45mb)

Baker Hall at Carnegie Mellon University (PDF/44pgs/4.23mb)

Exploris: the Children's Museum About the World (PDF/31pgs/3.13mb)

Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities Office and Training Facility (PDF/20pgs/4mb)

Our Lady of Lourdes School (PDF/32pgs/2.94mb)

Veterans Park Educational Campus (PDF/28pgs/2.77mb)

IRS Appraiser, Tax Appraiser, Los ANgeles County Assessor,

Technical Notes 2 -
Glossary of Terms Relating to Brick Masonry
Jan/Feb 1975 (Reissued Mar. 1999)

Real Estate & Mortgage Free Excel® Spreadsheets Download Security Issues, please read:
The spreadsheets below do not use Macros and have been used by us for years without any problem. When you try to run them  you can expect to receive warnings from
Microsoft. This is a standard warning to protect you from malicious software. Please make sure you only download these spreadsheets directly from our site. They are
password protected for security reasons.  
You may also
use most of these spreadsheets on-line. You do not then need to download anything and you do not need Excel.

A Pedagogical Tool to Assist in Teaching Real Estate Investment Risk Analysis
Journal of Real Estate Practice and Education,  2004  by Weaver, William,  Michelson, Stuart
Abstract. This paper presents a simple Excel model that provides measures of the standard deviation of forecasted internal rate of return (IRR) given traditional data inputs
such as annual cash flows, terminal values and equity. The model first calculates IRR using traditional discounted cash flow methods and then provides heuristic estimates
of variability measured in terms of "high," "low" and "most likely" values. It also provides an actual measurement of risk in terms of mean and standard deviation and upper
and lower quartiles, along with a graphical presentation of various risk parameters. The only additional analysis required is an estimation of the variability of periodic cash
flows and the terminal value of the investment.

Real Estate appraisal review: lessons from the past
RMA Journal, The,  June, 2003  by Richard A. Clarke
During the last downturn of 1988-91, many lenders accepted appraisals of commercial property values without making any real attempt to verify the appropriateness of the
assumptions or to view resultant values with a healthy degree of skepticism. Given the increasing softness in commercial property values, it makes sense to revisit lessons
learned during that time, if only to serve as a reminder to those lenders who shared my experiences and to assist newer lenders in focusing on recent history.

The (Fannie Mae) Foundation is dedicated to producing
publications that provide useful, innovative, and timely information that is helpful to potential homebuyers, current
homeowners, policy-makers, planners, and practitioners working in the affordable housing and community development field, and researchers.

Benjamin Moore Personal Color Viewer. This site lets you choose whether you want to virtually paint one of many sample rooms, or fork over $10 for software that will allow
you to upload your own digital photos to “paint.”

ppraisal Myths

Market Reports

esearch Reports
To view and print electronic copies of the publications, you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader (you can obtain a copy of Acrobat Reader free from Adobe's website). You can
access all of our MSA-level and national reports by following the links below. If you have not already registered with us, you will be prompted to complete a registration form
prior to viewing the report. Click here to register to receive research reports.
Having problems viewing a report? Click here for help.
2006 Real Estate Outlook
2006 Special Report – Investment Outlook
Local Apartment Research Reports
Our local apartment market research reports offer insights, analyses and forecasts of property performance and investment opportunities in major MSAs nationwide.
Local Office Research Reports
Our local office market research reports offer insights, analyses and forecasts of property performance and investment opportunities in major MSAs nationwide.
Local Retail Research Reports
Our local retail market research reports offer insights, analyses and forecasts of property performance and investment opportunities in major MSAs nationwide.
National Apartment Research Report
National Hospitality Research Report

National Industrial Research Report

National Office Research Report

National Retail Research Report

National Self Storage Research Report

National Seniors Housing Research Report

National Single-Tenant Research Report

NOIPG Market Update - Fall 2005

Special Office Report

Recent Market Presentations
2005 Multifamily Executive Conference

Presentation 1
Presentation 2

AICPA National Real Estate Conference

ULI Presentation - May 2006

Third Quarter Market Rankings
Economic and Apartment Market Ranking
Economic and Office Market Ranking
Economic and Retail Market Ranking

Safety and Health Topics Pages provide access to selected occupational safety and health information. The subjects of these pages include specific workplace hazards, as
well as individual industries. Members of the Editorial Boards evaluate numerous OSHA and non-OSHA references on a given subject to determine which they consider
most important in reducing occupational injuries and illnesses. With the continued support of our users, editors, and editorial boards,
OSHA's Safety and Health Topics
Pages provide assistance for complying with OSHA standards, enabling employers to ensure safer workplaces.

An Overview of Legal Descriptions
The primary purpose of a legal description (title description) is to describe a particular parcel of land in a way that uniquely describes only the subject parcel, without
ambiguity. It is also important that the legal description survive through time, or be composed in such a way that the legal description is not dependent on elements that may
not be available in the future. In the United States, the most common methods used to describe land are by reference to a lot and/or block within an existing subdivision, by
aliquot description, by metes and bounds, or by a combination of these. Each of these methods is illustrated in greater detail by the following information.

building costs:

Approximate Conversions of the
Most Common Units of Wood Measure
I have compiled a list of common wood conversions foresters, loggers and timber owners need on occasion. Please remember that they are to be used for approximations
only and should not be used when extreme accuracy is called for, especially when selling timber products.

What Is A
Board Foot?

Irregularly shaped parcels of land are described by
Metes and Bounds. This is actually an easy system if you can determine where the starting point is. Usually Metes and
Bounds starts at a particular point and then calls off directions and distances, following the boundaries of the land until it returns to the point of beginning (abbreviated pob).
There are times when you cannot locate the point of beginning, but you can locate some other point. In that case you can just work backwards to find your point of beginning.
In any case, you usually need a piece of paper to draw your description out. Here is a typical description:

NCREIF was established to serve the institutional real estate investment community as a non-partisan collector, processor, validator and disseminator of real estate
performance information.
NCREIF serves this community by doing the following:

The Real Estate and Investment Center

The Center for the Study of Innovation and Productivity (CSIP) is organized under the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's Economic Research Department. CSIP was
founded in recognition of the critical importance of innovation and productivity to the economy and the prevalence of innovative sectors in the 12th Federal Reserve District.
CSIP seeks to promote a better understanding of innovation and productivity and their links to the performance of national and regional economies and the behavior of firms
and labor markets.

Center for Pacific Basin Monetary and Economic Studies About the Center-a program to promote cooperation among central banks in the region and enhance public
understanding of major Pacific Basin monetary and economic policy issues.

Southern California Association of Governments has evolved as the largest of nearly 700 councils of government in the United States, functioning as the Metropolitan
Planning Organization for six counties: Los Angeles, Orange, San Bernardino, Riverside, Ventura and Imperial

Metal a
nd Glass Curtin Wall Systems

Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings

2005 Specification provides the
generally applicable requirements for the design and construction of structural steel buildings and other structures. This ANSI-approved
specification is the first edition to incorporate ­both allowable stress design and load and resistance factor design methods. The design provisions for single angles and
hollow structural sections are also included. Dual-units format provides for both U.S. customary and S.I. units.

of Historic Adobe Buildings

This is a list of the current
sampling guides provided by LA Testing. Click the sampling guide you are interested in to view more information.

Put more money in your own pocket this year by learning about tax credits and help available to you. If you did not apply for tax credits last year when you filed your income
taxes, don't miss out this year on money that could be yours! Find free tax help and information right here

Uniform Plumbing Code -

Proposed Land Banking Sale
W1/2-NW1/4, Sec. 36, T27N-R23W, Haskill Mountain
Flathead County, Montana
July 21, 2005

The two methods most often recommended for obtaining market-derived
adjustments utilized in the sales comparison approach to appraisal are Paired Data
Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis. These approaches are viewed as competing
alternatives, with advocates and detractors for each. The main purpose of this paper is to
demonstrate that these two alternatives to estimating sales adjustments are equivalent
under certain circumstances. This point of equivalence may prove to be a useful starting
place for improving our understanding of the differences between and similarities of the two
methods. After explaining the data requirements of each method, we provide a set of
sufficient conditions under which the two methods produce identical adjustment estimates.
We finish with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two
methods in estimating sale comparison adjustments.

This book-length site, which consists of 34 chapters and about 325 pages, i
s intended as an aid to anyone interested in the design of cities, whether layman, student, or
working professional. Through the use of illustrative cases, I have attempted to dissect city design, element by element.

Environmental Design Library  City Planning online
Here is a gathering place for selected Internet sites for city and regional planning. The focus is on sites likely to be of interest to the city and regional planning students and
faculty at UC Berkeley. While the emphasis is on academic city planning, practising planners will also find sites of interest. For additional Internet links, consult these
gateway sites: Cyburbia: the urban planning portal, Planetizen: the planning and development network, and VCU's Urban Studies and Planning.

hapter 8:  Standpipe Systems

Standpipe and Hose
Fire Protection Systems Self-Inspection Checklist

Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR)
 Standpipe and hose systems. - 1910.158

THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER IS TO EXPLORE THE POTENTIAL for a new niche in real estate investing, focused on “socially responsible” property investments.
responsible investing (SRI) in general, according to the Social Investment Forum (SIF) means investing “that considers the social and environmental consequences of
investments, both positive and negative, within the context of rigorous financial analysis.”1 It focuses on the “triple bottom line” by which investments are evaluated in terms of
their financial profitability, social equity, and ecological integrity.

Evaluating Income Property
All of these metrics are important when you are considering an income property purchase. One of my specialties is the evaluation of potential property purchases for my

Notice to Borrowers and Homeowners
From The California Office of Real Estate Appraisers

This information is made available through the
Riverside County Geographic Information System. The information is for reference purposes only. It is intended to be used as
base level information only and is not intended to replace any recorded documents or other public records. Contact appropriate County Department or Agency if necessary.
Reference to recorded documents and public records may be necessary and is advisable.
IRS Publication 950 entitled "Introduction to Estate and Gift Taxes"

Between Dates

The mission of the international nonprofit
NFPA is to reduce the worldwide burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating consensus
codes and standards, research, training, and education. NFPA membership totals more than 79,000 individuals from around the world and more than 80 national trade and
professional organizations.

Life Safety Code

Current information on Real Estate in The South Bay cities of Manhattan Beach, Hermosa Beach, Redondo Beach, El Segundo, Torrance, Palos Verdes and the surrounding
communities. Articles will cover buying, selling, general Real Estate information and things I find interesting.

The first
Preservation Brief was published in 1975. Since then, over 40 more have been added to the series. For over 25 years, Technical Preservation Services has helped
home owners, preservation professionals, organizations, and government agencies by publishing easy-to read guidance on preserving, rehabilitating and restoring historic
buildings. More than 2 million copies of the Preservation Briefs are in print and the illustrated Preservation Briefs 1-43 are now available online as an integral part of our 25th
anniversary celebration

Living Trusts
Over the last two decades, the popularity of
Living Trusts has skyrocketed. No longer a tool just for the rich, Living Trusts are one of the most common estate planning tools
in use today.  This legal arrangement, usually drafted by an estate attorney, creates a separate entity called a Living Trust. A Living Trust is called that simply because it is
created while you're alive (as opposed to a "testamentary" trust created after death).

"Estate planning." The phrase sounds so dry, distant, and foreboding. It's unfortunate so many
people shy away from even the thought of it, because planning your estate is really about caring for your
loved ones, seeing they are provided for, and making sure your hard-earned property is distributed
according to your wishes.
A living trust--an inter vivos trust if you want to be formal--allows you to put your assets in
a trust while you're still alive. If your living trust is revocable, as almost all are, it gives you great
flexibility. You or someone in whom you have confidence manages the property, usually for the benefit
of you or your family. Most people name themselves as trustees, and find there is no difference between
managing the trust and managing their own property--they have the right to buy, sell, or give property as
before, though the property is in the trust's name rather than their own.
A living trust is one of the two main ways to avoid probate. (The other is joint tenancy or
survivorship.) One of the purposes of probate is to determine the disposition of the property you leave
at death. Since the trustee of your living trust owns that property, there is no need for probate.

What Is To Be Done? This briefing paper prepares the state legislators who are members of five policy committees for their joint interim hearing on redevelopment reform
proposals in Sacramento on November 17, 2005.
The hearing is the legislators’ third formal
examination of the policy questions that surround how redevelopment officials use their eminent domain powers.  This re-newed
interest occurred in the aftermath of the United States Supreme Court’s rul-ing in Kelo v. City of New London in June 2005.  Because of the intense and often fierce public
reaction to the Kelo case, the Senate Local Government Committee held an informational hearing on August 17 to find out how the Supreme Court’s decision affected
California’s local agencies.  The joint interim hearing on October 26 in San Diego focused legislators’ attention on the statutory “blight” definition which controls where
redevelopment officials can use their eminent domain pow-ers.  In this third hearing, legislators will consider possible legislative changes to the Community Redevelopment
Law and related statutes.

Enviornmental COntamination and House Values
A house is a bundle of many goods: The number of bedrooms, bathrooms, the quality of  local public services, the tidiness of a neighbor’s yard, and the quality of the local
environment.  If transactions in the housing market reflect the interaction of informed buyers and sellers, then the price that the house sells for is the sum of the prices the
buyer is willing to pay for each individual characteristic of the house. It is this notion that motivates environmental economists
to study property values.
If individuals consider the local environment as a component of the
house they purchase, then information on the house and its sales price allows researchers to
‘tease out’ the price that individuals would be willing to pay for environmental goods. This
approach relies on the use of the hedonic price model.

Fair Market Value Trumps IRS Valuation Tables 12/1/2001
By Lance S. Hall
Published in Judges & Lawyers Business Valuation Update(tm) - October
2001Shackleford V. United States, 262 F.3d 1028, 2001 U.S. App. LEXIS 19217
(9th Cir., Aug. 28, 2001). Thomas, Judge.

Petitioners, two minor children and their parents, alleged in their suit against respondent that the children's serious birth defects had been caused by the mothers' prenatal
ingestion of Bendectin, a prescription drug marketed by respondent. The District Court granted respondent summary judgment based on a well-credentialed expert's affidavit
concluding, upon reviewing the extensive published scientific literature on the subject, that maternal use of Bendectin has not been shown to be a risk factor for human birth
defects. Although petitioners had responded with the testimony of eight other well-credentialed experts, who based their conclusion that Bendectin can cause birth defects
on animal studies, chemical structure analyses, and the unpublished "reanalysis" of previously published human statistical studies, the court determined that this evidence
did not meet the applicable "general acceptance" standard for the admission of expert testimony. The Court of Appeals agreed and affirmed, citing Frye v. United States, 54
App. D.C. 46, 47, 293 F. 1013, 1014, for the rule that expert opinion based on a scientific technique is inadmissible unless the technique is "generally accepted" as reliable in
the relevant scientific community.

These r
ules govern proceedings in the courts of the United States and before United States bankruptcy judges and United States magistrate judges, to the extent and with
the exceptions stated in rule 1101.

New Jersey State -CHAPTER TEN
Condemnation charges
(charges 10.10:through 10.15 Contain Civil Charges On Condemnation)
10.10 <http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/civil/charges/1010.htm>
Condemnation - Generally (A) Introduction (B) Definition of Fair Market
Value (C) Expert Testimony (D) Viewing         10.10
10.11 <http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/civil/charges/1011.htm>
Condemnation - Highest And Best Use (A) Generally (B) Effect of
Variance Or Zone Change (C) Effect of Potential Assemblage of Lots
10.11 <http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/civil/charges/10.11.doc>         
10.12 <http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/civil/charges/1012.htm>
Condemnation - Methods of Computing Fair Market Value (A) Generally (B)
Comparable Sales (C) Capitalization of Income (D) Reproduction Costs
10.12 <http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/civil/charges/10.12.doc>          
10.13 <http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/civil/charges/1013.htm>
Condemnation - Machinery         10.13
10.14 <http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/civil/charges/1014.htm>
Condemnation - Partial Taking (Severance Damages) (A) Severance Damage
Loss of Street Access (C) Consequential Damages         10.14
10.15 <http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/civil/charges/1015.htm>
Condemnation - Taking Publicly Owned Properties         10.15

Appraisers Forum  

Download USPAP 2005 here free

Development in UrbanSim
Gudmundur Freyr Ulfarsson
Department of Civil and Environmental
Mark S. Handcock
Department of Statistics and
Center for Statistics and the Social Sciences
Urban Simulation Seminar
University of Washington — 2002

Ways to Avoid Probate  An
introduction to the most popular methods.

How to Spot a
Predatory Lender
There's been a lot in the news lately about predatory lenders. But how easy are they to spot and what tactics do they typically use to capture and take advantage of unwitting
mortgage consumers?  First, it's important to realize that, like other professions, there are only a handful of bad apples spoiling the mortgage lender barrel! Unfortunately,
this unscrupulous, unethical handful is making quite an impact on how the majority is perceived by consumers. That's why The Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA) has
launched a campaign to inform consumers about inappropriate and illegal practices and help eliminate abuses in mortgage lending. Although you won't catch predatory
lenders advertising as such, the MBA pinpoints twelve lending practices that encompass the majority of improper actions. Divided into timeframes in the mortgage process,
they include

NKLA was the first project of the UCLA Center for
Neighborhood Knowledge. You are encouraged to visit some of our more recent online information systems that focus on
(1) housing, (2) health and human services, (3) resources for persons with disabilities, and (4) demographic and related data. Click below to access some of our more
recent projects.  

County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works Flood

U.S. Department of Labor  Occupational Safety & Health Administration

Air Rights Appraisal

VALUATION OF AIR RIGHTS.  The value of air rights is the value of the unencumbered land less the sum of the additional costs of  developing the air rights and the
capitalized value of the reduced utility of the building.  These value-reducing factors  may include the following.

Power Tools for Appraisers

The Los Angeles Downtown Center Business Improvement District (DCBID) is a coalition of over 400 property owners committed to enhancing the quality of life in Downtown
Los Angeles. The organization helps the 65-block central business district achieve its full potential as a great place to live, work and play.

Our Mission
The California Building Industry Association (CBIA) is dedicated towards fighting for California families who are struggling to achieve the American dream of
homeownership. Homeownership helps individual families prosper, strengthens communities and enhances the quality of life of the state as a whole. California
homebuilders are dedicated to being part of the solution, championing public policies that will help people become homeowners and enabling California to meet and even
exceed the national average.

Adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) indexes explained
By Holden Lewis • Bankrate.com
Like the COFI, the rate on a 12 MAT is adjusted every month. Depending on the loan program, the monthly payment might be adjusted every month or once a year.  Rates
indexed to the last 12 monthly averages for 1-year Treasuries move slowly. "If interest rates were to go up 100 basis points tomorrow," says Goldstone -- in other words, if
they rose 1 percentage point -- "that index would go up only one-twelfth of 1 percent the next month. And then the second twelfth the next month, and so on." he 12 MAT index
reacts slowly to fluctuations in short-term rates and smoothes them out.

Partial or
fractional interests in real property occur when the fee simple ownership in a single property or a group of properties is split or shared between one or more
ownerships. Probably, the most common instance of shared ownership is where a married couple owns the family home. That equal, undivided interest is referred to as a
joint tenancy. Upon death, the interest of the deceased automatically goes to the survivor or survivors.

There seems to be an endless choice of mortgages and rates available to the home buyer consumer. It is always great to have options so you can specify a mortgage that is
perfect for your financial situation. However, it can get tricky deciding between the many options.  I have attempted to put together in one place,
information on the top 9
mortgages that are used for home buyers to finance their homes. Although these are common mortgages and terms that you will see from a financial lender, remember that
these mortgages are almost always negotiable, especially if you have pulling power with good credit and a large down payment. Never agree to a mortgage or financial
commitment, no matter how tempting, if it falls out of your range of financial comfort. Address all options and choose what is right for you.

Foreclosure Resources and Information  
Foreclosure Pages
You may use the links on the left to find free foreclosure listings and information both on this site, and on many other sites linked from here. Our objective is to provide as
many resources as possible for those interested in foreclosure.

City's (San Francisco) premier Internet application that offers businesses immediate access to information that will assist with expansion and relocation decisions. With
SF Prospector, businesses can now obtain economic, planning, geographic, and demographic information in real time via the web.

This article discusses
safety hazards at residential electrical panels and suggests safety procedures for the electrical inspector, home inspector, or other professionals who
examine residential electrical systems. Safe electrical inspection procedures and safe use of volt meters, DMMs, multimeters, and similar electrical test equipment is
discussed at the end of the article. Original text: DF, as ASHI Technical Journal Staff, January 1992, with updates February 2006. More in-depth, un-biased, expert information
on these topics and on building defect inspection, diagnosis, & repair can be found at More Information, All Rights Reserved. Information Accuracy & Un-Biased Reporting
are Assured for this website - see pledge link at below-left. New York State License # 1600

City of Long Beach, CA.
Building and Planning

This article explains how to estimate the service size, (or "electrical power" or "service amps") at a building by visual inspection of the service entry cables, electric meter and
meter base, electrical service panel, main switch, and other details. Visual inspection and use of DMMs, VOMs, neon testers, and electrical inspection safety are discussed.
Photographs and sketches illustrate electrical panels, meter bases, and electric meters. One of the most frequently asked questions at ASHI Education Seminars and
Conferences is "How do I determine the service amperage?" It's not as difficult as one may think. But there are some pitfalls, and the process itself is dangerous. The
articles from which much of this online material originated appeared first in the ASHI Technical Journal, Vol. 2. No. 1, January 1992, "Determining Service Ampacity

ToolBase Services is the housing industry's
resource for technical information on building products, materials, new technologies, business management, and housing

Los Angeles
Guidelines for Designing a...             Residential Project          Commercial Project           Industrial Project

Welcome to
Economic Information
Our goal is to provide information that will help you understand the diverse and fast-changing Southern California market. Our research covers a six county area: Los
Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego and Ventura counties. To put things into context, we also analyze the California economy.  We also provide data on
key industries in the region. The list of these activities is also diverse and rather lengthy. We do much more than make movies. Moreover, many of the region's basic
industries are in the midst of rapid change.

Institute for Urban Economics (IUE) is a non-governmental and non-profit organization established in 1995 in Moscow. It was created to identify and analyze the social
and economic problems of urban areas and promote solutions to these problems. Main goals of the institute are: elaboration and introduction of new approaches to solving
housing problems, financing of housing and urban infrastructure,  municipal management, urban land use,  social protection of the population, and other problems of the
social and economic life of cities. All IUE researchers bring considerable experience in working with different governmental and municipal structures, scientific research and
educational institutes, both state-sponsored and private, as well as international donor agencies, banks, small business enterprises and foreign companies

Measurements in
Building Acoustics

Despite a growing interest in and awareness of applications of industrial ecology (IE), such as
eco-industrial parks (EIPs), little information is available about the potential
economic and environmental benefits of EIPs, the process for successful EIP development, the important regulatory issues surrounding EIPs, or the technologies needed to
support them.  This report contains the results of a body of research intended to  investigate and support the development of EIPs—communities of companies modeled
after industrial ecosystems. EIPs can exist within defined boundaries and broader industrial ecosystems in a region. These communities consciously collaborate to enhance
their economic performance through improved environmental performance. Their design is based, in part, on an understanding of the dynamics of natural systems and
includes features such as conversion of wastes into valuable inputs, cogeneration of energy, shared environmental infrastructure, and the minimization of  aterial throughput.

I am pleased to present the fourth edition, web version of this booklet to the public that outlines the Department of Regional Planning’s procedures for Applicants. This
booklet is produced as a public-private
joint venture with the firms of Urban Vision and FORMA Systems.

New York City,
Department of City Planning

Rescission - B&P
Timeshare Project - B&P 11003.5

Personal Liability In Commercial Loan Transactions
A Lender's Practical Approach To Evaluating Judicial Foreclosure, Deficiency Judgments And Personal Liability In California Real Property Commercial Loan Transactions
During the robust growth years in the real estate market, from 1975 to 1989, many commercial real estate lenders, when structuring commercial loan transactions, often
found themselves in the position where they believed that making the loan recourse or obtaining a personal guarantee from a borrower was advantageous to the loan
transaction because the guarantee added an additional degree of security to the loan that may not have otherwise existed. The significant decline in the California real estate
market over the last four years has resulted in many lenders pursuing borrowers personally following the foreclosure of the defaulted loan in those circumstances where the
value of the property was worth less than the outstanding debt. Unfortunately, many of the decisions to judicially pursue the borrowers individually were made with more
emphasis on emotions rather than on sound economic analysis.

California Association of Business Brokers,
Businesses for Sale

Potential Timeshare Problems
A number of problems can arise in connection with the purchase of a timeshare. Promises may not be fulfilled, sometimes a project goes bankrupt, and trades for exotic
spots may not materialize.  Sometimes investors' funds may be part of the actual construction money for the project. If preconstruction sales of timeshare intervals are not up
to the builder's expectations, the project may fail and buyers may lose their money. Under a right-to-use (lease) agreement, because you do not hold title, your entire
investment can be lost if the project should fail.

A highly successful form of marketing the beach bungalow in Maui or the ski cabin at Aspen is to sell (or lease) "timeshares" in the property.
Timesharing is an arrangement
that gives you the right to use property (e.g., a chalet, studio, house, apartment) for a limited, pre-planned time. There are two main types of timesharing plans: deeded and
non-deeded. With the deeded type, you buy an ownership interest in a piece of real estate. In the non-deeded plan, you buy a lease, license, or club membership that lets you
use the property for a specific amount of time each year for a stated number of years. With both types, the cost of your unit is proportionate to the season and the length of
time you want to buy. Obviously, a winter week in a warm climate is worth more than a summer week.

NEW! 2006 Interactive Downtown Maps!
Click here for interactive maps
With the new enhanced version, you can now search the DCBID database for housing types, construction status, size, price and rent ranges – even refine your search by pet
friendly and live/work units!  New Cartifact mapping technology allows you to smoothly navigate around the downtown area and click on hot spots for places of interest.

Urban Design is a selective bibliographic research guide to Internet sites and library resources supporting urban design research at UC Berkeley. Many additional resources
and reference assistance are available in the
Environmental Design Library, 210 Wurster Hall.

Several federal agencies have
properties to sell. In fact, HUD sells both single family homes and multifamily properties. Check them out - one might be just what you're
looking for!

ULI-the Urban Land Institute News Roundup
Current Issue

ULI-the Urban Land Institute Smart Growth News Current Issue

Sate of California, Office of Real Estate Appraisers: California Laws/California Regulations

NAIOP-Legal Issues


Understanding the Project-Based Section 8 Renewal and Restructuring (“Mark to Market”) Program

Small Business Tools
Here you'll find ready-to-use business tools to help you get the job done faster and easier, including:
Model business documents. Sample letters, contracts, forms, and policies ready for you to customize — from a Sample Independent Contractor Agreement to a Job
Application Form.
Financial spreadsheet templates. Help for managing your business finances — from balancing your checkbook to creating your own financial statements. Just plug in your
Checklists. Information you need at a glance, from whether you qualify for the home office write-off to the right things to do and say during an employee termination interview.
Official Government Forms. A selection of the forms and publications most commonly used by small business owners when filing taxes with the IRS or contracting with the
federal government.

option pricing techniques are often considered among the most mathematically complex of all applied areas of finance. Financial analysts have reached the point
where they are able to calculate, with alarming accuracy, the value of a stock option. Most of the models and techniques employeed by today's analysts are rooted in a model
developed by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes in 1973. This paper examines the evolution of option pricing models leading up to and beyond Black and Scholes' model.

Thank you for attending the 05.09.06 BV Conference.  Early feedback indicates the program was a success.  Many of you have asked for the slide presentations.  Here are
the links:
Speaker:  Pamela
Schlosser, Valuation in Financial Reporting

Speaker:  James
Walling, Stock-Based Compensation: A Discussion of FAS 123(R)

Speaker:  Pedro
Santos, Contingent Claims Analysis & Complex Capital Structures

Speaker:  Simon
Wilkins, Financial Reporting Valuations ...

Speaker:  John
Ciancanelli & Jim Wilson, 409(A)

Speaker:  Jennifer
Muller, 2005 M&A Market Highlights

Underground storage tanks (USTs) remain an important tool for many businesses, but the owners of USTs should be aware that they face significant liability exposure from
a variety of sources should leaks occur.
This page includes articles, studies, Web sites, and other material relating to underground storage tanks. Books can be borrowed
through the Information Central library by clicking on the book title.

Overview of Real Estate Investment Models, Part 1 of 2
By Larry Shafer, Dade Real Estate Investor Association Member

New Legislation Requires Changes to the Underground Storage Tank Program
On August 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Title XV, Subtitle B of this act (entitled the
Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act of 2005)
contains amendments to Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the original legislation that created the underground storage tank (UST) program. This
new law significantly affects federal and state underground storage tank programs, will require major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground
storage tank releases to our environment.  The UST provisions of the Energy Policy Act focus on preventing releases. Among other things, it expands eligible uses of the
Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund, extends the LUST Trust Fund tax through 2011, and includes provisions regarding inspections, operator training,
delivery prohibition, secondary containment and financial responsibility, and cleanup of releases that contain oxygenated fuel additives.

as adopted by American Land Title Association Land National Society of Professional Surveyors

and Related
as of January 1, 2006

Los Angeles Chapter Newsletter American Society of Appraisers
First Annual National IRS Symposium Part II

One of the most important and relatively expensive
elements in elevating structures is the process of physically lifting the structure to the design elevation. Due to the
opportunities for catastrophic failure and subsequent litigation, contractors selected for lifting structures were carefully scrutinized regarding past experience, insurability,
references, etc. Structure lifting contractors were employed as both subcontractors and prime contractors depending on their management, insurance and financial
capabilities in the flood proofing program. The quality of the lifting contractors proved to be a major contributor to the overall success of the program. However, one lifting
contractor was removed from the flood proofing program due to failure to perform

History of Modern Hydraulics, Inc.

the Real Estate Purchase Contract
There may be no such thing as a perfect real estate purchase contract, but getting this legally binding document right will save you money, time and heartache.

A Lease With Option To Purchase

Buying or selling real estate may be the largest single investment — and one of the greatest satisfactions — of your lifetime. Along with a substantial financial commitment,
such transactions usually involve risks, technicalities and legal considerations.
 This pamphlet is intended to provide you with general information about the basics of buying
and selling real estate. It explains essential steps in the process and suggests guidelines for avoiding pitfalls, but it does not attempt to provide specific legal advice.
Therefore, if you are not knowledgeable or experienced in negotiating terms, arranging financing, analyzing tax consequences, or handling related details, you may want to
consult a lawyer

The mission of the
Financial Accounting Standards Board is to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting for the guidance and education of the
public, including issuers, auditors, and users of financial information.

General Discussion of
GAAP Accounting for the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

What's Your Business Really Worth?

Financial Facts Tool Kit
Here you'll find a vast array of information to help you begin planning for a secure financial future. You don't have to be an expert to make money add up for you. You just need
to know how to get started.

Matrix, Interpreting The Real Estate Economy  

Soapbox, Appraisal Ethics, ...

Socketsite, San Francisco Real Estate ...

State of California, Department of real Estate
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consult an attorney for individual advice regarding your own situation.
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