§ 226.36 Prohibited acts or practices in connection with credit secured by a consumer’s principal dwelling.
(a) Mortgage broker defined. For purposes of this section, the term “mortgage broker” means a person, other than an employee of a creditor, who for compensation or other monetary gain, or in expectation of compensation or other monetary gain, arranges, negotiates, or otherwise obtains an extension of consumer credit for another person. The term includes a person meeting this definition, even if the consumer credit obligation is initially payable to such person, unless the person provides the funds for the transaction at consummation out of the person’s own resources, out of deposits held by the person, or by drawing on a bona fide warehouse line of credit.
(b) Misrepresentation of value of consumer’s dwelling–(1) Coercion of appraiser. In connection with a consumer credit transaction secured by a consumer’s principal dwelling, no creditor or mortgage broker, and no affiliate of a creditor or mortgage broker shall directly or indirectly coerce, influence, or otherwise encourage an appraiser to misstate or misrepresent the value of such dwelling.
(i) Examples of actions that violate this paragraph (b)(1) include:
(A) Implying to an appraiser that current or future retention of the appraiser depends on the amount at which the appraiser values a consumer’s principal dwelling;
(B) Excluding an appraiser from consideration for future engagement because the appraiser reports a value of a consumer’s principal dwelling that does not meet or exceed a minimum threshold;
(C) Telling an appraiser a minimum reported value of a consumer’s principal dwelling that is needed to approve the loan;
(D) Failing to compensate an appraiser because the appraiser does not value a consumer’s principal dwelling at or above a certain amount; and
(E) Conditioning an appraiser’s compensation on loan consummation.
(ii) Examples of actions that do not violate this paragraph (b)(1) include:
(A) Asking an appraiser to consider additional information about a consumer’s principal dwelling or about comparable properties;
(B) Requesting that an appraiser provide additional information about the basis for a valuation;
(C) Requesting that an appraiser correct factual errors in a valuation;
(D) Obtaining multiple appraisals of a consumer’s principal dwelling, so long as the creditor adheres to a policy of selecting the most reliable appraisal, rather than the appraisal that states the highest value;
(E) Withholding compensation from an appraiser for breach of contract or substandard performance of services as provided by contract; and
(F) Taking action permitted or required by applicable federal or state statute, regulation, or agency guidance.
(2) When extension of credit prohibited. In connection with a consumer credit transaction secured by a consumer’s principal dwelling, a creditor who knows, at or before loan consummation, of a violation of paragraph (b)(1) of this section in connection with an appraisal shall not extend credit based on such appraisal unless the creditor documents that it has acted with reasonable diligence to determine that the appraisal does not materially misstate or misrepresent the value of such dwelling.
(3) Appraiser defined. As used in this paragraph (b), an appraiser is a person who engages in the business of providing assessments of the value of dwellings. The term “appraiser” includes persons that employ, refer, or manage appraisers and affiliates of such persons.
(c) Servicing practices. (1) In connection with a consumer credit transaction secured by a consumer’s principal dwelling, no servicer shall–
(i) Fail to credit a payment to the consumer’s loan account as of the date of receipt, except when a delay in crediting does not result in any charge to the consumer or in the reporting of negative information to a consumer reporting agency, or except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section;
(ii) Impose on the consumer any late fee or delinquency charge in connection with a payment, when the only delinquency is attributable to late fees or delinquency charges assessed on an earlier payment, and the payment is otherwise a full payment for the applicable period and is paid on its due date or within any applicable grace period; or
(iii) Fail to provide, within a reasonable time after receiving a request from the consumer or any person acting on behalf of the consumer, an accurate statement of the total outstanding balance that would be required to satisfy the consumer’s obligation in full as of a specified date.
(2) If a servicer specifies in writing requirements for the consumer to follow in making payments, but accepts a payment that does not conform to the requirements, the servicer shall credit the payment as of 5 days after receipt.
(3) For purposes of this paragraph (c), the terms “servicer” and “servicing” have the same meanings as provided in 24 CFR 3500.2(b), as amended.
(d) This section does not apply to a home equity line of credit subject to § 226.5b.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 226.36]
[Section 226.36 added at 73 Fed. Reg. 44604, July, 30, 2008, effective October 1, 2009]
§ 226.37–226.45 [Reserved]
Subpart F—Special Rules for Private Education Loans